Translate revolutionary literature In 1970 start sending people abroad to learn

Translate revolutionary literature in 1970 start

This preview shows page 19 - 21 out of 22 pages.

Translate revolutionary literature In 1970, start sending people abroad to learn urban guerilla warfare Find their way into Palestinian camps in Lebanon Visit Khomeini in Iraq Gradually two movements form: Communists known as Fada Iyan-e Khala Believed in armed struggle, sacrificing themselves for the people Common people, not elites View Soviet Union as imperial power (not fans) Mujahadin-e Khala Struggle for the poor Religious but socialist at same time Both groups have socialist leanings Except Mujahadin come to it from Islamic sense, Fada come to it from Marxist Lenninism 1971, groups begin an armed struggle Rural police station attacked and weapons taken Idea is that these weapons will spread and uprisings will overthrow Shah Underestimated Savak who arrests/kills all of them in 2-3 years Planned uprising is big failure, but ideas spread Among young university students and high school students Ideas don’t include love of liberal democracy Leftist agenda The idea of democracy no longer fashionable among activists of 1970s Tudeh Party in exile, worshipped Soviet Union National front, Mossadegh’s party Radicals in exile Moderate ones live their own lives separate of regime Iran Novin Party and Mardom Party supposed to compete in elections Novin party always wins, elections rigged 1974 Mardom gets a leader who things he is a real opposition leader Wages a campaign, government frightened and rigs elections Week later dies, people realize it is no use 1975, Shah announces that two-party system doesn’t benefit Iran Gives up pretense that Iran is a multi-party democracy Creates a single party: Rastakniz (Resurrection) Turns out to be the beginning of end for Shah Until 1975, you could be apolitical Every Iranian citizen had to be a member of Rastakniz party
Image of page 19
Had ideology of three parts: Monarchy, White Revolution, Constitution (in order) States of Mohammad Reza Shah: Rule in 1941, constitutional 1953 rule in coalition with others 1963-1978 ruled alone, dictator 1968 Mohammad Reza Shah crowned himself Changed constitution to make wife regent Women crowned for first time in Iran Imitation of Napoleon Symbolic importance for women Could have become head of state 1971, Shah decided that State of Iran had been founded 2,500 years ago Decided to celebrate Connecting his rule to Cyrus (Founder) Major party arranged Heads of states around the world invited Emperor of Ethiopia recognized as superior (only real superior) Had parade for guests, Iranian troops paraded People didn’t like this Paid for by “voluntary contributions” Too much, over the top Shah goes to tomb of Cyrus and reads speech to Cyrus “Sleep in peace because we are awake” Trying to tell people he is the successor Personality cult developed around Shah Pictures everywhere No one dared criticize him because everyone feared Savak Wrote a book called White Revolution Became a textbook in high schools Shah didn’t tolerate anyone who tried to tell him the truth about what is going on Supposed to only tell him good news 1963-1978, politically disastrous
Image of page 20
Image of page 21

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 22 pages?

  • Spring '17
  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture