03 Describing Data Graphically and Numerically Part 2

Stem and leaf diagram example to the right of the

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Stem and Leaf Diagram Example To the right of the vertical line, record the last digit for each data value 11 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9
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Stem and Leaf Diagram Example Sorting the data from low to high: 12 68 69 72 73 73 75 76 76 80 81 81 82 83 84 85 86 91 92 92 92 94 95 95 96 97 98 98 100 100 102 104 106 106 106 107 108 112 113 115 115 118 119 119 124 126 127 128 132 134 141
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Stem and Leaf Diagram Example To the right of the vertical line, record the last digit for each data value 13 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9 2 3 3 5 6 6
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Stem and Leaf Diagram Example Sorting the data from low to high: 14 68 69 72 73 73 75 76 76 80 81 81 82 83 84 85 86 91 92 92 92 94 95 95 96 97 98 98 100 100 102 104 106 106 106 107 108 112 113 115 115 118 119 119 124 126 127 128 132 134 141
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Stem and Leaf Diagram Example To the right of the vertical line, record the last digit for each data value 15 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9 2 3 3 5 6 6 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 0 0 2 4 6 6 6 7 8 2 3 5 5 8 9 9 4 6 7 8 2 4 1
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Stem and Leaf Diagram Example To the right of the vertical line, record the last digit for each data value 16 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 9 2 3 3 5 6 6 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 2 2 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 0 0 2 4 6 6 6 7 8 2 3 5 5 8 9 9 4 6 7 8 2 4 1 Numbers to the left of the vertical line form the stem Each digit to the right of the vertical line is a leaf
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Stem and Leaf Diagram vs Histogram A Stem and Leaf diagram is similar to the histogram as it displays the distribution for the quantitative variable. Advantages of Stem and Leaf over Histogram: The stem and leaf display is easier to construct by hand Within a class interval, the stem and leaf display provides more information than the histogram because the stem and leaf shows the actual data In the histogram, the individual value of the data is lost once it falls into a class The stem and leaf diagram shows individual data values 17
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Stem and Leaf Diagram Using other stem units: Using the 100’s digit as the stem: Round off the 10’s digit to form the leaves 18 6 7 12 1 8 2 613 would become 776 would become 1224 becomes . . .
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Line Charts Line Charts are effective tools to represent data that are measured over time (e.g., monthly, quarterly, annually) Line charts show values of one variable vs. time Time is traditionally shown on the horizontal axis Variable of interest on the vertical axis. Line charts are also called trend charts or time series. 19
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Line Chart Example – Inflation Rate 20 Year Inflation Rate 1985 3.6 1986 1.9 1987 3.6 1988 4.1 1989 4.8 1990 5.4 1991 4.2 1992 3 1993 3 1994 2.6 1995 2.8 1996 3.3 1997 1.7 1998 1.6 1999 2.7 2000 3.4 2001 1.6 2002 2.4 2003 1.9 2004 3.3 2005 3.4 2006 2.5 2007 4.1 2008 0.1 2009 2.7 2010 1.5 2011 3 2012 1.7 2012 1.7
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Line Chart Example – Foreign Exchange Rate 21 Date EUR/USD Exchange Rate 4/1/08 1.56 4/2/08 1.5683 4/3/08 1.5676 4/4/08 1.5718 4/7/08 1.5704 4/8/08 1.5714 4/9/08 1.5826 4/10/08 1.5742 3/28/13 1.2817 3/29/13 1.2813 4/1/13 1.2845 4/2/13 1.2814 4/3/13 1.2846 4/4/13 1.2933 . . . . . .
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Line Chart Example – Housing Inventory 22 Source: nytimes.com
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Line Chart Example – Home Values 23 Source: nytimes.com
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Line Chart Example – Airline Fares 24 Source: kayak.com
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Scatter Diagrams A Scatter diagram is a graphical presentation between two quantitative variables.
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