Relays messages from the brain to the body muscles and from body to brain

Relays messages from the brain to the body muscles

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Relays messages from the brain to the body (muscles) and from body to brain (sensation) - Some processing occurs in the Spinal Cord: o Withdrawal Reflex: ‘automatic’ versus ‘controlled’ processing
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o Motor programs Brain: - Subcortex: Literally ‘below the cortex’ o Basic Functions: Emotion, hunger, formation of memories, vital functions (heart rate) - Cortex: (aka Cerebrum ) o Higher Mental Functions: Language and Reasoning o Two Hemispheres: Specialization Contralaterality o Four Lobes Frontal Lobe: Reasoning Parietal Lobe: Sensation and Movement Temporal Lobe: Language Occipital Lobe: Vision *The motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex are arranged in Topographic Organization * Chapter 3: Perception Distal and Proximal Stimulation Distal Stimulus: Stimulus as it exists in the environment - Vision: Electromagnetic Radiation - Hearing: Pressure waves in the air - Taste: Chemicals - Smell: Chemicals - Touch: Pressure, Temperature Proximal Stimulus: Stimulus as represented in the mind A Sensory System creates the proximal stimulus from the distal stimulus - Sensory Organs: eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, tongue - Receptor Cells - Nerve conducts - Brain *Proximal Stimulus is not a direct, accurate representation of Distal Stimulus* “FA” video Color only exists only in our heads: Your yellow might be different from my yellow! Bats ‘see’ the moth… bats use sonar, so they cant ‘see’ Our Senses use only some of the information that is available - Vision: a narrow range of electromagnetic radiation - Audition: some frequencies, not others - Smell, Taste: some chemicals, not others
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o Humans CANT smell Carbon Monoxide or Natural gas Different mammals are sensitive to different ranges of stimuli: - Pit viper: infrared - Bee: ultraviolet - Elephant: infrasound - Bat: ultrasound Different senses have different importance to different animals - Humans are very good at vision, but poor at smell - Dogs are very good at smell, but poor at vision Our Senses are especially sensitive to change - For example: o An image that is stationary on retina disappears o We ‘hear’ that a clock has stopped ticking Approaches to the Study of Perception Computational Approaches - Consider perceptual system as skin to computer Gestalt Approaches - The whole is more than the sum of the parts - Brain makes certain conclusions that may or may not be accurate - You see a triangle; however, there is not one (the pac-men make it kinda look like one) Perception/Action Approaches - ‘What for’ rather than ‘what’ - Perception and Action are intimately linked Computational Approach Psychophysics: Studies the relationship between some aspect of physical stimulus and our perception of it - Example: Which of these corresponds to the average area of the two circles???? ..... or adjust brightness of middle circle so that it is halfway between the others Perceiving 3D: World is 3D, image on retina is 2D Binocular Disparity: The images in our two eyes are slightly different. The brain uses the differences between the images to reverse-engineer depth
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