s/sx: pain in extremities, palor, diminished pulses, may lead to tissue ulceration and gangreneoRaynaud’s Disease: intense vasospasm of the arteries and arterioles in the fingers and toess/sx: more frequently seen in healthy young women, palor, cold in fingertips, hx of vasospasmtreatment: vasodilating drugs—calcium channel blockers oarterial embolisms/sx: pistol shot – acute onset, pallor- pale, polar- cold; no blood flow, pulselesness, pain, paresthesia, paralysisdiagnosis: duplex doppler, arteriography (picture of artery), echocardiogram (video/picture of heart using sound waves)treatment: thromboaspiration, embolectomy, blood vessel bypass medications: thrombolytic, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, pain medicationKnow the cardiac cycle, including systole and know what valves are open and closed during the cardiac cycleoAtrioventricular valves mitral and tricuspid: when they shut make S1 heart sound: openduring diastoleoSemilunar valves aortic and pulmonary: when these valves shut makes S2 heart sound: open during systole Coronary Heart DiseaseKnow about venous stasis and thrombosis, signs and symptoms, Homan’s sign and preventive measuresoVenous stasis is improper functioning of the valves of the veins in the legs varicose veinsRisk factors: bed rest, stress, immobility, spinal cord injury, acute MI, CHF, shock, venous obstruction oThrombophlebitis: inflammation of a vein; nurses can cause this with IV insertion oThrombosisformation of a blood clot; leg pain, swelling, Virchow’s Triad assoc. w/ Venous ThrombosisStasis of blood flowBlood coagulabilityVessel wall injury oDVT: deep vein thrombosis; preload diminishes oHoman’s signKnow signs and symptoms of left sided heart failure, right sided heart failure and both, includingPathophysiology. oHeart failure: inability of the heart to meet the demands of the body oCHF: Cardiac issue with a pulmonary systemoLeft sided heart failure: failure of the eft heart to move blood from pulmonary circulation into the systemic circulation; blood backs up into the pulmonary circulationCauses: acute MI, cardiomyopathy (disease process of the muscles of the heart), HTN
NURS 115SCIENCES IN NURSING Study Guide for Test ThreeMillers/sx: first seen is a respiratory issue (SOB, cough- w/ sputum), decrease CO, pulmonary congestion-cough, blood tinged sputum (pink and foamy), paroxysmalnocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, cyanosis, oRight sided heart failure: failure of the right heart to pump blood forward into the pulmonary circulation; blood backs up into the systemic circulation--Causes peripheral edema and congestion of the abdominal organsCauses of RHF: MI, HTN, cardiomyopathies, volume overload (renal failure), persistent LHF, acute or chronic pulmonary disease s/sx: first seen in jugular veins (JVD), abdominal region- liver and spleen
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- Spring '12
- Nursing, Atherosclerosis