Finds it difficult to believe only one religion exist

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Finds it difficult to believe only one religion existNSYR-->found religious to be related to higher well-being and lower rates of participation in risk behaviour§Study comparing African and whites--> African more likely to cope with stress through religion§Associated with other positive characteristics:becoming better personAdolescent's ideas about religious faith tend to be more abstract/less concrete-Asked various questionsFOUND: younger--> emphasized external behaviour in explaining what it means to be member of faithElkind (78) interviewed 100+ Jewish, Protestant and Catholic children-People become more aware of symbolism used in their faith§Religious understanding becomes more complex§Early adolescent--> poetic-conventional faithPeople rely less on what parents believed and develop more personal faith §Movement reflects an integration of religious faith with individualistic values§Late adolescent/emerging adulthood--> individuating-reflective faithFowler--> proposed theory of stages of religious development-Most important change occurring at adolescents is RamadanIt commemorates revelation of Koran(misspelled in book)Muslims are forbidden from taking part in any indulgences and required to fastBefore puberty--> girls have no obligations but once first menarche reaches--> they startBOYS--> based on signs such as beard growth and changes in growthOne contrast to individuating process--> cultures where Islam is dominant-But in rural (narrow)--> pressure from family makes it impossibleThere has been some rebellion for adolescents refusing to fast in urban areas-Because they were raised to wait to participate in Ramadan--> many are -Religious Beliefs and Cognitive Development;
Because they were raised to wait to participate in Ramadan--> many are eagerly waiting to be a part of it so they accepted the beliefs-Scholars have theorized about adolescent's moral development rotted in cognitive processes-Two views: (1) Jean Piaget; (2) Lawrence Kohlberg-Cultural Beliefs and Moral Development:Diff methods: (1) watching children play games; (2) interacted with them; (3) posed theoretical questionsIn 1932, developed ideas about moral development-Corresponds to preoperational stage (4-7)§Moral rules--> viewed as having sacred fixed quality§Believe in handed down from figures of authority (parents)§Can be altered only by authorities§(1) heteronomous morality:Beginning at adolescent--> formal operations--> (10-12_§Involves growing realization that moral rules are social conventions that can be changed if person decides to change§Involves growing complexity in moral thinking--> takes into account motivation for behaviour rather than only consequence§(2) autonomous morality:Concluded--> 2 distinct approached to reasoning about moral issues:-Gradually leads to awareness of rules of games= more general awareness of moral ruleSays--> parents are less effective than peers in promoting moral dev.

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