The shocking missile deployment and intimidating mock

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South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Comprehensive
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 35
South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Comprehensive
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The shocking missile deployment and intimidating mock naval attacks sent the Soviets into a state of shear panic, and nearly started a nuclear war . 19 Thankfully for the leaders in Moscow the provocative training exercise proved to be nothing more than a drill, and a clash with America and her allies was avoided . However, unbeknownst to many in the USSR, a more direct military conflict between the Soviets and US was already occurring in Afghanistan . The Red Army’s assault on the nation had almost immediately turned into a proxy war with America, and under Reagan, aid to the enemy combatants was continually boosted . Attacks on the communist influence were also being covertly undertaken in South America, as the President agreed to grant more aid to counter revolutionaries in Nicaragua, and right wing totalitarian regimes in El Salvador and elsewhere . 17 Ibid, p. 230 18 Bonita Dombey. Strategic Defences: Alternative Missions and Their Costs . p. 62 19Arnav Manchanda. When truth is stranger than fiction: the Able Archer incident . Cold War History . 9.1 (2009) introduction 8
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South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Comprehensive
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 35
South-Western Federal Taxation 2020: Comprehensive
Maloney/Raabe/Young
Expert Verified
Support of Afghanistan’s Mujahedeen resistance fighters (Operation Cyclone) had begun under President Carter, but progressed substantially during Reagan’s terms in office . By 1987 the cost of American military aid had reached a total of 670 million dollars per year 20 . The actual weaponry being supplied was initially limited, as it had to be covertly purchased from Egypt or China to prevent the Soviets from tracing it back to the United States 21 . In 1985 Reagan modified this policy by signing National Security Decision Directive #166 or NSDD-166) . This document, which solidified Washington’s strategic objectives in Afghanistan, called for the United States to “Prevent the defeat of an indigenous movement which is resisting Soviet aggression”, “Show firmness of purpose in deterring Soviet aggression in the Third World”, and “Deny Afghanistan to the Soviets as a base” . 22 Further expansion of US military aid was now formally justified, and by 1986 the Mujahedeen received access to advanced “Made-In-America” weapons systems such as the FIM-92 surface-to-air missile launcher (Stinger) . Stinger missiles enabled the rebels to more effectively combat the lethal Soviet Air Force 23 , and did likely contribute to a substantial 20 Peter Bergen. Holy War, Inc. Inside the Secret World of Osama Bin Laden . (1st ed. New York: The Free Press, 2001.)p. 68 21 ibid 22 United States of America. National Security Decision Directive Number 166 (NSDD-166) . (Washington D.C.: , 1985.) pp. 1-2 23 Kuperman. “ The Stinger Missile and Afghanistan”, p. 226 9
increase in aircraft losses in the late 80’s 24 . Still, American assistance did not enable the Mujahedeen to defeat the Soviet juggernaut . Though war hawks inside the Reagan administration flaunted the role vast amounts of funding was playing in encouraging a Soviet withdrawal, the reality actually proved to be quite the opposite .

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