and uncountable ads, upon hearing or seeing the name “Crest” consumers think of premium product for keeping their mouth and teeth healthy and protected from bacteria, disease and deterioration. Crest is a conditioned stimulus and the consumer’s associations are conditioned responses. Advertising wear-out is the point at which an individual becomes satisfied with numerous exposures, and both attention and retention decline. Some marketing scholars believe that just three exposures to an advertisement are needed: one to make consumers aware of the product, a second to show consumers the relevance of the product, and a third to remind them of its benefits. This exposure pattern is called the three-hit theory. Stimulus Generalization Responding to the same way to slightly different stimuli. Example, Pavlov found that a do could learn to salivate not only to the sound of a bell, but also to similar sounds such as jangling keys or coins. Product line extensions are additions of related items to an established brand; these are likely to be adopted because they come under a known and trusted brand name. V8 soups are product line extensions. In learning terms, consumers will apply what they already know about V8 to its new product and probably try the new item. Another definition: is when a company creates a new product in the same product line of an existing brand. The strategy for an extension could be a different color or size, and it may have different ingredients or come in different flavors. The company is marketing the value and quality of the existing product line to introduce more choices to consumers. Product form extension Offering the same product in a different form but under the same brand. Example: Listerine, a mouthwash in the form of liquid and a leading brand, introduced Listerine Pocket Packs- a solid form of its product. Family Branding: Consists of marketing different products under the same brand name. Example, Campbell’s originally a marketer of soups, continues to add new food products to its product line and under the Campbell’s brand name, such as chunky, condensed kids, and lower sodium soups; frozen means named Campbell’s Super Bakes; and tomato juice. Licensing is contractually allowing a well-known brand name to be attached to the products of another manufacturer. The names of designers, manufacturers, celebrities, corporations, and even cartoon characters are attached, for a fee (i.e., “rented out”) to a variety of products, enabling the licensees to achieve instant recognition and implied quality for the licensed products. Stimulus discrimination is the opposite of stimulus generalization. Its purpose is the selection of a specific stimulus from among similar stimuli. The core objective of positioning is to “teach” consumers to discriminate among similar products (i.e., similar stimuli) and form a unique image
for a brand in their minds. The ad for Fage yogurt wants to differentiate it from other yogurts based on its thickness.
- Fall '17