L08b - NATS1610-fw1718 - UPDATED - Mitochondria and Cell Metabolism (1).pdf

Air organisms provide mitochondria with o 2 n

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air, organisms provide mitochondria with O 2 n Mitochondria also produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) n By exhaling , organisms remove the mitochondria’s CO 2 n FINAL PRODUCTS from Cellular Respiration n Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) n Water (H 2 O) n Energy (in the form of ATP) n Mitochondria CONTAIN ENZYMES (proteins) for BOTH the n Krebs cycle n Electron transport chain n BOTH are oxygen-requiring processes Fig. 3.13 - from Starr and McMillan, Human Biology , 10ed, Brooks Cole
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23 ATP forms IN the inner compartment of the MITOCHONDRION Mitochondria are enclosed by a DOUBLE membrane n Outer and Inner n Allows for AREAS for (1) “stockpiling” of hydrogen ions and (2) for the formation of ATP INNER membrane has many folds called CRISTAE (increased surface area) n Contains attached enzymes (proteins) for BOTH the 1. Krebs cycle 2. Electron transport chain INNER compartment – the MATRIX n Inner space bounded by inner membrane n ATP forms IN the matrix OUTER compartment n The space BETWEEN inner and outer membranes n The “Intermembrane Space” Fig. 2.9 - from Sherwood et al, Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. 1 st Canadian Edition, Nelson
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How cells make ATP Through the process of CELLULAR RESPIRATION n A SERIES of reactions that break down macromolecules (larger molecules) n Resulting in the formation of ATP n In particular, GLUCOSE is broken down and converted into intermediate molecules During these reactions n Electrons & hydrogen ions are TRANSFERRED to various molecules n Hydrogen ions (H+) are H atoms that lost their electron n Electrons are subatomic particles found in atoms n (See slide 18) glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System Image from page 60 - from Starr and McMillan, Human Biology , 10ed, Brooks Cole 24
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Step 1. Glycolysis 25
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How Cells Make ATP: STEP 1 GLYCOLYSIS n Breakdown of GLUCOSE molecules to PYRUVATE (aka pyruvic acid) n Occurs in cell cytoplasm , OUTSIDE of mitochondria n Oxygen NOT required n Initial ATP input for phosphorylation n Transferring phosphate groups n Intermediate product: PGAL n Phosphoglyceraldehyde FINAL PRODUCTS (per ONE glucose molecule) n *** TWO pyruvate (move to Step 2) n TWO NADH (not shown in figure) n Net energy yield is TWO ATP 26 GLUCOSE ADP Energy in (2 ATP) ADP PGAL: INTERMEDIATES DONATE PHOSPHATE TO ADP, MAKING 4 Pyruvate “NET” ENERGY YIELD: 2 Fig. 3..24 - from Starr and McMillan, Human Biology , 10ed, Brooks Cole Pyruvate
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Step 2. Acetyl CoA Formation and Krebs Cycle 27
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How Cells Make ATP: STEP 2 (occurs INSIDE mitochondria) A. BOTH Pyruvates enter mitochondria n EACH binds with coenzyme A (CoA) to form acetyl-CoA FINAL PRODUCTS (per ONE glucose) n Two acetyl CoA molecules n Two CO 2 (exhaled ) n Two NADH (carries H+ and electrons) B. BOTH Acetyl CoA ENTER the Krebs Cycle within the mitochondria n Series of reactions n Requires oxygen to “run” FINAL PRODUCTS (per ONE glucose) n Two ATP n Four CO 2 n Six NADH n Two FADH 2 (role similar to NADH) n Regeneration of cycle intermediates 28 Image from page A-5, (Appendix 1) - from Starr and McMillan, Human Biology , 10ed, Brooks Cole A.
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