1 Please continue 2 The experiment requires that you continue 3 It is

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1. Please continue 2. The experiment requires that you continue 3. It is absolutely essential that you continue 4. You have no other choice, you must go on 60% of people went all the way Stanford Prison “Experiment” (Ordeal) Know about why this wasn’t an experiment o The study was based on something students had done a year earlier, and told Zimbardo about He pretty much stole the idea from them o He had written the results before the study was even conducted and told the guards what results he wanted to see Throughout the study, coached them to make sure they were being sadistic enough There is an audio recording from their training where Milgram tells them the purpose of the study is to show how evil people can be so they can get press coverage
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o The guards report knowing they were in an experiment, but thinking they were research assistants and needed to do as Milgram instructed/ prisoner faked mental breakdown The “warden” in charge of guards was another researcher, not participant The Fundamental Attribution Error Ned Jones and Victor Harris (1967) had people write counter- attitudinal essay and others rated how much author believed it o Raters overestimated how much writer truly endorsed opinion Humans tend to overestimate the internal causes of behavior We attribute the behavior of others to their personalities, even when situation is the cause of what they do o “Over attributing” to the person o AKA the correspondent inference bias o Actor- observer bias Mischel’s Attack on Personality o Behavioral consistency Soo behavior is consistent across different situations?? If not, then it can’t be a real thing personality not real o Magnitude of the relationship between personality and behavior The “coefficient of determination” r = .30 Personality characteristics never predicted behavior more than .30 o How this attack was consistent with the zeitgeist and which previous personality psychologist that is familiar to Remember when Freud’s popularity was partly due to explaining the status quo (the inferiority of women during Victorian Era)? Mischel’s view fit with the cultural zeitgeist - explained what was happening at the time, and how things were changing And many people embraced it Major Replies to Mischel’s Attack o The Moderator Approach What is the moderator approach Personality may not predict all behavior all of the time Moderators can tell us when and how personality predicts behavior There might be certain people for whom personality is a stronger predictor of behavior There might be some situations in which personality is a stronger predictor behavior What is a moderator variable Variable that effects the relationship of two other variables Moderator Variables: Situation Strength
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o the looser the situation the more personality influences behavior Self-monitoring o
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