muhammad reza shah formed resurgence party, claimed iran was one party state, named himself head oil and rentier state iran transformed into rent-seeking state under pahlavi’s because of increasing income from oil rentier economy: heavily supported by state expenditure, while the state received “rents” from other countries iran received increasing revenue from exporting oil and leasing oil fields to foreign countries although shah promoted import sub policies, 1979 oil provided 97% of foreign exchange and majority of iranian GNP oil revenue so great gov didn’t have to tax as much pahlavi monarchy demands for free elections shahs regime increasingly contested at home but it continued to receive support from the west in general and in the US in particular opposition to the shah also became opposition to the US evidence suggests that shah was successful at manipulating US policymakers to achieve his ends rather than the other way around. reestablished authoritarian rule but democratic experiment of 1906 constitution not forgotten, shah challenged domestically passed power to his son, muhammad reza shah, in 1941 between 1941 and 1953, iran’s political system included three main camps: -pro western conservative establishment shan and landlords -pro soviet commie tudeh party -neutralist national front, aimed at establishing full rule of law within the country and consolidating its standing among nations -muhammad mosadegh PM: oversaw the nationalizing of the Iranian oil industry -British plotted his overthrow, accomplished with the help of the CIA New gov: 1979 new constitution maintained a parliament elected by universal suffrage shah replaced by an elected president principle of velayat-e faqilt: “guardianship of the jurisprudence” an honestly undemocratic constitution with multiple power centers iran-iraq war 1979-1981 violent competition for power amongst revolutionaries khomeini gains upper hand and began institutin islamic law in all spheres and public life iran-iraq war: 1980-1988: 8 years of warfare with at least half a million casualties and several billion dollars’ worth of damages, but no real gains by other side. legacy of oil wealth: a rentier state -sustain themselves independently of social pressures and powerful interest groups
organizations of iran theocracy with some concessions to democracy -theocracy: state dominated by the clergy, rule on the grounds that they are the only interpreters of gods will and law. in iran, the theologians (or theocrats) control most of the important positions in the iranian government. democracy: some of iran’s high officials such as the president are directly elected by the people constitution: -written by the assembly of religious experts following the 1979 islamic revolution later revised in 1989 before khomeinis death -all laws must conform to divine principles: god, divine justice, quran, the resurrection, the prophet mohammad, the 12 imama,s the eventual return of the hidden mama, and khomeinis doctrine of jurists guardianship following are from the mosadegh file historical context Qajar Dynasty is in control of Iran from 1785-1925
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- Fall '16
- Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Reza Shah, MOhammad Reza Shah