DSST Anthropology as a Discipline

In such a society there is restricted access to the

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In such a society there is restricted access to the roles that are most highly valued. In societies that are the most diverse in terms of roles, social stratification will emerge as one of the most salient traits. People notice or assess or evaluate class membership of others in various ways; the indications of which are manifest in different ways. Haviland mentions three ways that social classes become manifest within a society: verbal evaluation, patterns of association, and symbolic indicators. In a stratified society, activities and possessions indicative of social class are called symbolic indicators. The "rags-to-riches " belief is rampant in the USA, bolstered by traditional stories of people like Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Alva Edison, Booker T. Washington, Sam Walton, etc. . People who became wealthy or famous in their own lifetime, yet starting from very modest beginnings. In open-class societies, the stratification allows a great deal of mobility. In nuclear families it is easier to accomplish upward mobility because the individual is not tied to as many people. Upward mobility refers to the ability to move upward in the class system. The individual can accomplish mobility through several means--occupational mobility, mobility through marriage, disassociation from a lower-class family by establishing a neolocal residence. Economic Organization is the earliest human subsistence form and most stable. In this form, a unit of production is the same as a unit of consumption. Of 150 billion people who have lived, 60% were H&G, 99% of our time as a species has been as H&G. Foragers have limited material culture, and heavy dependence on social structure. They also maintain a low population. People who survive on the collection of naturally occurring plants and animals are called hunter - gatherers.
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Until approximately 8,000 years ago, all humans foraged for wild food. Many cultures practiced hunting or gathering in some combination with animal husbandry (the practice of breeding and raising livestock) or agriculture. Horticulture is the domestication of plants or gardening by using tools that require human power. It is characterized by increased labor intensity, surpluses and social stratification . The selective breeding of animals and plants by humans is called artificial selection . In agriculture, superior strains of soybeans, wheat, and corn have resulted from careful breeding. Animal breeders often are able to change the characteristics of domestic animals by selecting for breeding individuals with the most desirable traits, obedience in dogs, speed or strength in horses, milk production in dairy cows etc. Agriculture
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