Liberty:-Land is the basis of liberty-“The settlers of English America came to enjoy greater rights than colonists of other empires, including the power to choose members of elected assemblies, protections of the common law such as the right to trial by jury, and access to land, the key to economic independence” (Foner 48). -“Owning land gave men control over their own labor and, in most colonies, the right to vote” (Foner 54)Policies in the colony-Headright system: “A land-grant policy that promised fifty acres to any colonist who couldafford passage to Virginia, as well as fifty more for any accompanying servants. The headright policy was eventually expanded to include any colonists—and was also adopted in other colonies” (Foner).-First elected assembly in colonial America convened in 1619, House of Burgesses, “a “charter of grants and liberties… only freemen could vote, and the company and its appointed governor retained the right to nullify any measure the body adopted” (Foner 58).Indentured Servants-“In the seventeenth century, however, nearly two-thirds of English settlers came as indentured servants, who voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a specified time (usually five to seven years) in exchange for passage to America” (Foner 54).-“To ensure uninterrupted work by female servants, the law lengthened the term of their indenture if they became pregnant” (Foner 54).-“...servants would receive a payment known as “freedom dues” and become free members of society” (Foner 54).-Was not a guaranteed passage of life in America as many died before their term ended. “Freedom dues were sometimes so meager that they did not enable recipients to acquireland” (Foner 54).Slaves came in 1619-Twenty African slaves arrived in Virginia on a Dutch vesselUprising of 1622-In 1622, Opechancanough, Powhatan’s successor and brother, led a surprise attack wiping out a quarter of Virginia’s settler of 1200 in one day-The surviving 900 attacked back by massacring Indians and destroying their villages-Governor Francis Wyatt of the Virginia Company explained that by going to war, “...the Indians had forfeited any claim to the land” (Foner 60).
-“Virginia forced a treaty on the surviving coastal Indians, who now numbered fewer than 2,000, that acknowledged their subordination to the government at Jamestown and required them to move to tribal reservations to the west and not enter areas of Europeansettlement without permission” (Foner 60).-“Two years later, it surrendered its charter and Virginia became the first royal colony, its governor now appointed by the crown” (Foner 60).Tobacco was Virginia’s gold-John Rolfe introduced tobacco into the colony-“The crown profited from customs duties (taxes on tobacco that entered or left the kingdom)” (Foner 61).-Increased demands of tobacco meant increased demands in labor which in turn led to the influx of indentured servants and slavesMaryland established in 1632 as a proprietary colony under Cecilius Calvert-Proprietary colony: “...a grant of land and governmental authority to a single individual” (Foner 62).
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