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Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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CHAPTER 11: Children, Social Problems, and Society 329 However the rate of births to unmarried women from 15 to 44 years of age peaked at a rate of 51.8 per 1,000 women in 2008 and dropped to 47.6 in 2010 (J. Martin et al., 2012). As we can see in Exhibit 11.3, the teen out-of- wedlock birth rate reached a peak earlier in 1995 of 43.8 per 1,000 unmar- ried women and then steadily declined to a rate of 39.0 in 2000, to 34.5 in 2005, before increasing slightly in 2006 and 2007 when it reached 36.5. It then began a steady decline to 35.9 in 2008, 31.1 in 2010, 26.7 in 2012, and to 22 in 2014 (the lowest in 34 years). However, underlying these overall rates are important racial and ethnic differences. As Exhibit 11.3 shows, the rate of out-of-wedlock births has been high for Black and Hispanic teens for many years. For Black teens, the rate rose from 87.9 births to 106.0 births per 1,000 women between 1980 and 1990. For Hispanic teens, data have been available since 1990; the rate rose from 65.9 to 73.2 nonmarital births per 1,000 women in 1995. The rate Exhibit 11.2 Birth Rates per 1,000 Women Aged 15 to 19, From 1940 to 2011 53.5 79.5 91 68.3 52.2 59.9 47.7 45.3 43 40.5 41.9 41.5 40.2 37.9 34.2 31.3 29.4 26.6 24.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Sources: Adapted from J. Martin, M. Park, and P. Sutton (2002); J. Martin et al. (2009); B. Hamilton, J. Martin, and S. Ventura (2011); B. Hamilton and S. Ventura (2012); J. Martin et al. (2012), S. Ventura et al. (2014); B. Hamilton et al. (2015) Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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330 PART FOUR: Children, Social Problems, and the Future of Childhood of out-of-wedlock births for White teens has been much lower than for non- White teens, but the rate has increased dramatically, rising from 16.5 births per 1,000 women in 1980 to 30.6 births per 1,000 women in 1990 (J. Martin, et al., 2002). Again, however, we have seen a decline in nonmarital births among all racial and ethnic groups since the mid-1990s, but the decrease has not been a steady one for Hispanic teens. The rate for Black teens has declined the most—from a peak of 106.0 births per 1,000 women in 1990, to 75.0 births per 1,000 women in 2000, to 60.6 in 2005, with a slight increase to 63.5 in 2006. Since that time the rate began a steady decline again, reaching 50.8 in 2010, 43.4 in 2012, and a low of 34.4 in 2014 (Ventura et  al., 2014; Hamilton et al., 2015). For White teens the drop has been less dramatic but has been fairly steady. For White teens, nonmarital births peaked at 35.0 births per 1,000 women in 1995 and dropped to 32.7 per 1,000 women in 2000. The steady decline continued to a low of around 30.0 per 1,000 women in 2005 and again, as for all groups, a slight increase in 2006 fol- lowed by a decrease to 31.9 in 2008, to 27.9 in 2010, to 24.1 in 2012, and to a low of 20.3 in 2014. For Hispanic women, the pattern is more complex; the rate dropped from 73.2 per 1,000 women in 1995 to a low of 66.1 per 1,000 women in 2002. At this point, the nonmarital birth rate became higher
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