Mitigation measure in this way more importance in the

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mitigation measure. In this way, more importance in the decision process is given toenvironmental criteria (soil protection, increasing water availability and forest protection)whereas the importance of socio-economic criteria is thought to be low (Annex 2). Theoverall score obtained for each of the mitigation measures and the ranking from the mostpreferred to the least preferred measure do however not change. Agroforestry turned out tobe still a very favourable measure (4.1) to mitigate causes of environmental refugees,followed by acceptable measures such as irrigation systems and alternatives for fuel wood(3.3) birth policy (2.9) and building dams (2.8) Desalinization of sea water (2.1) continues tobe seen as an unfavourable measure in order to mitigate the problem.
135 DiscussionFirst the results of this environmental system analysis will be discussed and thereafter adiscussion will follow about the methods applied in this assessment.Like the multi-criteria analysis shows agroforestry is the most preferred solution. This isbecause it has a high potential for a sustainable land use. If the implementation is correct, itprotects in a great extent the natural resources like soil, forest and water. Theimplementation is possible in a wide range of landscapes in Kenya and can support asustainable economic growth in the agricultural sector. So, because of its overall effect(economy and environment) and easiness to implement this measure is most favourable formitigating the causes of environmental refugees.Likewise, through irrigation systems it is possible to mitigate problems such as water scarcityand degradation of soils. The performance of the measures against agroforestry is lower.Whether or not irrigation systems are profitable for a sustainable land use depends on theperformance of the system. Irrigation measures using high water amounts in the arid and subarid regions of Kenya forces soil salinitation, while drop irrigation systems are useful for theimplementation of sustainable land use.The implementation of a birth policy can lead to ethical and social problems (difficult toimplement in democratic countries). Therefore only birth policy measures with low pressureon people, like enlightenment measures, should be implemented. The success of these lowpressure measures depends on a lot of other social-economic aspects. For this reason birthpolicy should be implemented together with other (environmental) mitigation measure, sowhen birth policy fails there is still a mitigating effect on the causes of environmentalrefugees.Desalinisation of sea water is least preferred to solve the problem due to the high technicalcomplexity, it is expensive to implement and is not a way to control the degradation of forestsand soils.

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