By disengaging they are freed from social responsibilities and gain time for

By disengaging they are freed from social

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By disengaging, they are freed from social responsibilities and gain time for internal reflection. The outcome is a new equilibrium that is ideally satisfying. Rapkin and Fisher challenged this theory.
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Demographic disadvantaged and age-related transitions were related to a greater desire for disengagement, support, and stability. Elders who were married and healthy were more likely to report a desire for an energetic lifestyle. Adams supported this theory. Instrument to measure change in activity among older adults. One example of the restrictions society can pose on older adult activity is the Social Security laws that reduce payment to older adults who make more than a set income. Subculture Theory: Theorized by Rose . Older adults form a unique subculture within society to defend against society’s negative attitude toward aging and the accompanying loss of status. Older adults prefer to interact among themselves. Social status is determined more by health and mobility than occupation, education, or income. Older adults have a social disadvantage regarding status and associated respect because of the functional decline that comes with aging. Continuity Theory: Theorized by Havighurst . Personality influences the roles we choose and how we enact them; this in turn influences satisfaction with living. Personality is well developed by the time we reach old age and tends to remain consistent throughout time. Four personality types: integrated, armored-defended, passive-dependent, unintegrated. Integrated: have adjusted well to aging, as evidenced by activity engagement that may be broad (reorganizers), more selected (focused), or disengaged. Armored-defended: tend to continue the activities and roles held during middle age. Passive-dependent: either highly dependent or exhibit disinterest in the external world. Unintegrated (least well-adjusted): fail to cope with aging successfully. Adjusting to physical, financial, and social decline; contemplating death; and developing a personal and meaningful perspective on the end of life are the tasks of older adulthood. Identifying with one’s age group, finding a living environment that is compatible with physical functioning, and learning new societal roles postretirement. These provide clues as to how one will adjust to changes in health, environment, or socioeconomic conditions, and in what activities they will engage. First sociological theory to acknowledge that responses to aging differ among people. Age Stratification Theory: Examined the interdependence between older adults and society. Riley theorized this theory. Society is stratified into different age categories that are the basis for acquiring resources, roles, status, and deference from others in society.
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