IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

12 125 transmission by emerging needs for more

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12 1.2.5 Transmission by cable 12 1.3 Emerging needs for EES 12 1.3.1 More renewable energy, less fossil fuel 12 1.3.2 Smart Grid uses 13 1.4 The roles of electrical energy storage technologies 15 1.4.1 The roles from the viewpoint of a utility 15 1.4.2 The roles from the viewpoint of consumers 16 1.4.3 The roles from the viewpoint of generators of renewable energy 17 Section 2 Types and features of energy storage systems 19 2.1 Classification of EES systems 20 2.2 Mechanical storage systems 20 2.2.1 Pumped hydro storage (PHS) 21 2.2.2 Compressed air energy storage (CAES) 22 2.2.3 Flywheel energy storage (FES) 23 2.3 Electrochemical storage systems 24 2.3.1 Secondary batteries 24 2.3.2 Flow batteries 28 2.4 Chemical energy storage 30 2.4.1 Hydrogen (H 2 ) 30 2.4.2 Synthetic natural gas (SNG) 31 2.5 Electrical storage systems 32 2.5.1 Double-layer capacitors (DLC) 32 2.5.2 Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) 33 2.6 Thermal storage systems 33 2.7 Standards for EES 35 2.8 Technical comparison of EES technologies 36
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4 C O N T E N T S Section 3 Markets for EES 41 3.1 Present status of applications 42 3.1.1 Utility use (conventional power generation, grid operation & service) 42 3.1.2 Consumer use (uninterruptable power supply for large consumers) 45 3.1.3 EES installed capacity worldwide 47 3.2 New trends in applications 47 3.2.1 Renewable energy generation 47 3.2.2 Smart Grid 51 3.2.3 Smart Microgrid 53 3.2.4 Smart House 54 3.2.5 Electric vehicles 55 3.3 Management and control hierarchy of storage systems 57 3.3.1 Internal configuration of battery storage systems 57 3.3.2 External connection of EES systems 58 3.3.3 Aggregating EES systems and distributed generation (Virtual Power Plant) 58 3.3.4 “Battery SCADA” – aggregation of many dispersed batteries 60 Section 4 Forecast of EES market potential by 2030 61 4.1 EES market potential for overall applications 62 4.1.1 EES market estimation by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) 62 4.1.2 EES market estimation by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) 62 4.1.3 EES market estimation for Li-ion batteries by the Panasonic Group 64 4.2 EES market potential estimation for broad introduction of renewable energies 65 4.2.1 EES market potential estimation for Germany by Fraunhofer 65 4.2.2 Storage of large amounts of energy in gas grids 68 4.2.3 EES market potential estimation for Europe by Siemens 68 4.2.4 EES market potential estimation by the IEA 70 4.3 Vehicle to grid concept 71 4.4 EES market potential in the future 72 Section 5 Conclusions and recommendations 75 5.1 Drivers, markets, technologies 76 5.2 Conclusions regarding renewables and future grids 77 5.3 Conclusions regarding markets 78 5.4 Conclusions regarding technologies and deployment 78 5.5 Recommendations addressed to policy-makers and regulators 79
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5 5.6 Recommendations addressed to research institutions and companies carrying out R&D 80 5.7 Recommendations addressed to the IEC and its committees 81 References 83 Annexes 87 Annex A – Technical overview of electrical energy storage technologies 88 Annex B – EES in Smart Microgrids 90
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6 L I S T O F A B B R E V I AT I O N S Technical and scientific terms Br Bromine BMS Battery management system
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