Stage 2: 2-3 Autonomy vs shame and doubtWillStage 3: 4-6Initiative vs guiltPurposeStage 4: 7-12Industry vs inferiority Competence Stage 5: 13-19Identity vs role confusion Fidelity: loyalty to the ideals and lifestyle associated with the new identity formed through the struggleoThe search for identity involves identity crisis, self-exploration and choicesDevelop a consistent sense of sense (who am i?)Who you are, where you are going and where you fit in societyEmotional closeness- adult attachment Stage 6: 20-34Intimacy vs isolation LoveStage 7: 35-65Generativity vs Stagnation CareStage 8: 65+Integrity vs despairWisdomoAdolescent Identity CrisisPersonalityExternally imposed morality turns into personal ethicsWhat kind of person do I want to be? How do I want others to perceive me?Is there a discrepancy between how we feel on the inside and how we are perceived by others?CareerWhat is the nature of the work, training required, job opportunity, salary?How will doing this work make me feel? How is this work perceived by others?James MarciaExplores adolescent Identity Development Two key elements involved in identity struggleoExploration: the need to explore/consider optionsoCommitmentExploringnoyesDecision: NoDiffusionmoratoriumYesForeclosure Identity achievIdentity diffusion: postponement of identity crisisoNo exploration or questioning
oNo decision oLife may be chaotic, disorganized oLow levels of intimacy oEssentially drifting… directionlessForeclosure: identity chosen in early adolescenceoHad made decision oWithout exploration or questions oFactorsFamily goals or traditions, external locus of controlTruly limited options Moratorium: those who are unable to make decisions and commitmentsoExploring and questioning oNo decision oSense of urgency, anxious, but open to new experienceIdentity achievement: individual commits to the option that best fits their beliefs, values and occupational goalsoDiscovered through exploration o4% of 15 year oldso20% of 18 year oldso40% of college studentso58% of 24 year oldsOptimal progression of stagesoForeclosure to moratorium to identity achievementYoung AdulthoodoIf intimacy:Comfortable in relationshipsTrust themselves and others, form close emotional ties without fearGive freelyMore cooperativeoIs Isolation:Hesitant to form close relationshipsLow tolerance for differences Afraid of closeness, do not trust others Competitive Give little of themselvesoAdaptive StrengthMature love: supports and is supportive, gives and takes, is constant and trueMiddle Adulthood StageoSense of purpose and productivity oChange: identity transition Not still young: the youth are in their own generation Not yet old: the elderly discuss their health, grandchildren, cooking and gardeningRealize life is about half over:No longer is all of life aheadHow do I best use my time and energy?