They have university chairs and departments for each discipline - They create schools to do all these jobs (curators for libraries, laboratory expertise) - Public outreach programs (museums) - Enlightened audiences come to see so they can feel distinction from their peers and collect these arts and findings - Even Précis (1892)
HIST 215- Lecture 15- World War One: Between History and Commemoration WWI: World Impact and Total War - First total war because all of society was impacted - Takes place between German, Austria, Hungary against the Triple Entente (Great Britain, Italy, and Russia) - Ottoman Empire joins the progressive powers Historiography Why did the war break out? - The July Crisis: a Serbian Nationalist in Sarajevo assassinated The Archduke of Austria Hungary. This leads to the declaration of war between Austria, Hungary to Serbia. The system of alliances makes different states enter the war. - Inevitability? Criticize the Fischer thesis: Many historians believe that Germany had already prepared for the war beforehand, and found this crisis to be the perfect pretence to push the war forward - Acting according to a short horizon, got into the war without even knowing it as “Sleepwalkers”, term penned by Christopher Clark (author) - Societies driven by honour codes Why did the allies win? - Germany was at the peak of its power. Industry was the most developed, university system was the most advanced (research system and educational system), but still they lost. - Logistics: Better logistical system, managed to avoid budgetary collapse like Germany (1918), managed to better fund their military effort. Also, the state innovation (state mechanisms to take care of different elements of the logistics). Ministry of Health dates back just after WW1, and the people that staff it are people who dealt with health issues at that time. So the French ad the British excelled in this area. Pushed forward their Industrial Revolution efforts - Lack of Supplies: Colonial Empire was built thanks to German Support (Otto Van Bismarck, calmed France and not have France get revenge with Germany within Europe (1871, French/ German war)). The fact that there was a colonial empire allowed France to bring in lots of troops and lots of supplies (food, raw material coming from all over the world). - The only types of supplies Germany got was oil from Romania
Were the generals to blame for casualties? - Germany lost 15,000 casualties the first day (in one day) - The inept “generals” argument - Middle rank and Higher rank officers: Hadn’t always experienced warfare and middle rank officers had experience but were not hurt. 19 th century type of army where you have to listen to the higher people. The middle rank (soldier type of knowledge that developed during the war). - The “learning curve” argument: Progressively, during the war, you make mistakes. You try, you fail it’s a learning curve. You learn how to do things better: the higher officers did not take this into account.
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