of each step (25). Some researchers emphasized the importance of risk management to be a reactive approach to risk, but definitely indicate the importance of the proactive process (19,20,22,23,26,27,28,29,30,34). The key role of Collaborative engineering approach was also emphasized. Many typologies have been proposed and discussed in the literature as summarised in Table 1. Three main classifications have been identified based on the type of risk. The first one is based on the classifications according to the type of risk (29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35). The second classification is from the supply chain viewpoint which is summarised in Table 1 (19,25,26,27,36,37,38). Table 1: Classifications from a supply chain viewpoint References Classification Definitions Peck (2002) Internal to the supply chain Arise from interaction between constituent organizations across the supply chain External to the supply chain Arise from interactions between the supply chain and its environment Christopher (2003) Level 1 – Value stream Workflows and information flows Level 2 – Asset & Infrastructure Fixed and mobile assets needed to produce and carry the goods and information flows in level 1 Level 3 – Organization Contractual and trading relationships Level 4 - Environment Wider macroeconomic and natural environment within which organizations do business, assets and infrastructure are positioned and value stream flows. Deleris et al (2004) First-level factors Supply Transportation Production Storage Demand Structural factors Directly affect the outcome, but not within the control of the firm nor always directly related to its supply chain but affect the outcome values Second level factors Affect the value of the first-level factors. For each first- level factor, the second-level factors are man, machine, infrastructure Risk factors Operational/technological Social Nature/hazard Economy/competition Legal/political Internal or external uncertain events that cause or worsen supply chain disruptions through their effect on first- and second-level factors Cavinato (2004) Physical network Actual movement and flows within and between firms, transportation, service mobilization, delivery movement, storage, and inventories Financial network Flows of cash between organizations, incurrence of expenses, and use of investments for the entire chain/network, settlements, A/R and A/P processes and systems
Sami Kara, Berman Kayis and Emilie Gomez Communications of the IBIMA Volume 5, 2008 103 References Classification Definitions Informational network The processes and electronic systems, data movement triggers, access to key information, capture and use of data, enabling processes, market intelligence Relational network The appropriate linkage between a supplier, the organization and its customers for maximum benefit; includes internal supply matter relationships throughout the organization Innovational network The processes and linkages across the firm, its customers, suppliers, and resource parties for the purpose of discovering and bringing to market product, service, and process opportunities Kleindorfer and
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