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2.No African American was ever elected governor3.Only in South Carolina did black people control one of the houses of legislature4.There were 2 black Senators and 15 black members of the House of Representatives5.Black elected leadership came from the elite ranks of the communitya.80% were literateb.Over 25% had been free before the warc.Many were professional (clergy)d.Of the farmers, most owned lande.The leadership tended to be more conservative that the rural black populationf.The leadership showed little interest in land reform6.Scalawags and carpetbaggers were groups of white Republicansa.Scalawags– white southerners who supported the Republican party; primarilyUnionists yeoman farmers who were attracted to the Republican promise of restored prosperity, public schools, and the opening of land for the railroadsb.Carpetbaggers– northern white Republicans who came to live in the south following the war – many sought political rank, others were veterans, teachers, Freedmen’s Bureau agents; and speculators in cotton plantationsC. Reforms under the New State Governments1.State governments assumed responsibility for social welfare programs
2.State governments established statewide public school systems in the South3.New constitutions proclaimed the principle of equality4.Black men were granted the right to vote5.Segregation was notoutlawed6.Schools were not integrated by lawIn what ways were the church and the school central to African American hopes after the Civil War?IV. Black AspirationsA.Experiencing Freedom1.Freedom meant:a.An end to physical abuseb.An end to the breakup of familiesc.An end to sexual exploitationd.Freedom of movemente.Most importantly – freedom meant that African American labor was for their own benefitf. Freedom meant choosing employmentg.Freedom meant having a full name, and choosing ith.Making decisions for themselvesB.The Black Family1.A number of changes were made to protect the black family from white control:a.Blacks sought to legalize their marriages after slaveryb.Black men became the heads of householdsc.Many black women retreated from fieldwork, and began to work in the home for the benefit of their familiesd.Father’s demanded the right to control the labor of his wife and childrenC.The Schoolhouse and the Church1.The most essential institutions in the black communitya. Initially established by the Freedmen’s Bureau, states opened public schools for African American studentsb. Education was the key to remaining freec. Most Freedmen’s Bureau teachers were white, middle class women from the North sent by missionary societiesi. White teachers were targeted by white hostile Southernerse. By 1869 most of the teachers in black schools were black and had been trained by the Bureau
f. Once free, Black people established their own churches, led by black preachers – these institutions represented the only major organizations controlled by Blacks themselves