IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

150 400 v potential in saving fuel 8 15 20 20 range

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150 – 400 V Potential in saving fuel - 8 % - 15 % - 20 % - 20 % -- Range for electrical driving -- < 3 km 20 – 60 km < 100 km 100 – 250 km EES type Lead Acid, NiMH, Li-Ion NiMH, Li-Ion NiMH, Li-Ion Li-Ion Li-Ion, NaNiCl
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58 S E C T I O N 3 Markets for EES in order to safeguard the lifetime and ensure safe operation of the batteries. The diagram in Figure 3-17 shows a possible realization of the internal control architecture for a battery storage system. It should be noted that for bulk energy storage it is very likely that there is a more refined hierarchy for the BMS, which involves a master control module coordinating the charging and discharging of the slave control modules. It is possible that the batteries and converters are from two different manufacturers, and therefore compatibility and interoperability of the two systems regarding both communication and electrical connections is imperative. 3.3.2 External connection of EES systems The P and Q set-points for an EES for a certain application can be set locally or remotely, depending on the control scheme implemented. The control scheme should in turn be determined by the application. More precisely, the application determines the algorithmic and input/output requirements for the EES system. For instance, an application which requires simple logic using only local measurements can have the set-points determined locally through the storage controller. An example of such an application is load levelling, which only needs to know the loading conditions of the local equipment (e.g. lines, transformers) next to which the EES is installed. The same applies for applications which have pre- determined set-points that do not change during operation. However, set-points for applications which require dynamic adaptation to the network operational environment and much remote data or measurements might be better determined by a remote controller which can gather these remote inputs more efficiently. One example of such an application is wind power smoothing, which uses wind output forecasts as well as measurements from the wind farm as inputs. Another example is energy time-shifting, making use of dynamic market prices. A generalized setup with remotely determined set-points is shown in Figure 3-18. Batteries and the BMS are replaced by the “Energy Storage Medium”, to represent any storage technologies including the necessary energy conversion subsystem. 3.3.3 Aggregating EES systems and distributed generation (Virtual Power Plant) The control hierarchy can be further generalized to include other storage systems or devices Figure 3-17 – A possible realization of internal control architecture for a battery storage system (ABB) Battery Energy Storage System Storage Controller BMS ~ Batteries Communication Connection Electrical Connection Converter
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59 Figure 3-18 – A Control hierarchy involving remote data/measurements (ABB) EES System Storage Controller to grid Control Center/Substation Storage Status P, Q Set-points Communication Connection Electrical Connection ~ Energy Storage Medium
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