Investigation 5 1 dr spocks trial the well known

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Investigation 5. 1: Dr. Spock’s Trial The well-known pediatrician and child development author Dr. Benjamin Spock was also an anti- Vietnam War activist. In 1968 he was put on trial and convicted on charges of conspiracy to violate the Selective Service Act (encouraging young men to avoid the draft). The case was tried by Judge Ford in Boston’s Federal court house. A peculiar aspect of this case was that hi s jury contained no women. A lawyer writing about the case that same year in the Chicago Law Review said, “Of all defendants at such trials, Dr. Spock, who had given wise and welcome advice on child-bearing to millions of mothers, would have liked women o n his jury” (Ziesel, 1969). The opinion polls also showed that women were generally more opposed to the Vietnam War than men. In the Boston District Court, jurors are selected in three stages. The Clerk of the Court is supposed to select 300 names at random from the City Directory and put a slip with each of these names into a box. The City Directory is renewed annually by a census of households visited by the police, and it lists all adult individuals in the Boston area. In Dr. Spock’s trial, this samp le included only 102 women, even though 53% of the eligible jurors in the district were female. At the next stage, the judge selects 30 or more names from those in the box which will constitute the “venire.” Judge Ford chose 100 potential jurors out of these 300 people. His choices included only 9 women. Finally, 12 actual jurors are selected after interrogation by both the prosecutor and the defense counsel. Only one potential female juror came before the court and she was dismissed by the prosecution. In filing his appeal, Spock’s lawyers argued that Judge Ford had a history of venires in which women were systematically underrepresented. They compared the gender breakdown of this judge’s venires with the venires of six other judges in the same Boston court from a recent sample of court cases. Records revealed the following data: Judge 1 Judge 2 Judge 3 Judge 4 Judge 5 Judge 6 Judge 7 Total Women on jury list 119 197 118 77 30 149 86 776 Men on jury list 235 533 287 149 81 403 511 2199 Total 354 730 405 226 111 552 597 2975 Descriptive Statistics (a) Calculate the proportion of women on the jury list for each judge. Also create a segmented bar graph to compare these distributions. How do the judges compare?
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Chance/Rossman, 2015 ISCAM III Investigation 5.1 321 (b) Let S i represent the probability of judge i selecting a female for the jury list. State a null and an alternative hypothesis for testing whether these data provide reason to doubt that the proportion of women on jury lists is the same for all seven judges. Note : Your null hypothesis states only that the probabilities are equal; you are not specifying a particular value for this common probability. The alternative hypothesis can state only that at least one probability differs from the rest.
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