Exhibit deviant andexcessive growthfactors that allowreproduction and angiogenesis (development of new blood Neoplasms distinct characteristicsLoss of cell to cell communication, which allows further unrestricted growth of tumor cellsIncreased energy expenditure, which deprives unaffected cells of nutrientsIncreased motility and loss of cohesion adhesion, which promotes movement to other locationsRapid angiogenesis, which provides extensive blood flow to the tumorcellsSubstance secretion, which alters the metabolism and degrades neighboring unaffected cellsPresent foreign antigens on the cancer cell surface, which can trigger the immune response
vessels) to meet the extreme nutrient demands of tumor cells.Blood flow demands of neoplastic cells deprive neighboring tissues of adequate oxygen and other nutrients, which resultin tissue ischemia and necrosis.Tumor cells can also secrete enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and allow the tumor to move into neighboring tissuesCellular mutations and aberrations are seen as a type of cellular injury that is subject to destruction by the inflammatory and immune responses.Paraneoplastic SyndromesHormonal, neurologic, hematologic and chemical disturbances in the body.Are not directly related to invasion by the primary tumor or metastasisOften responsible for the range of clinical manifestations that can occur.Disturb neurologic function** Significant characteristic of many neoplasms is the ability to produce and secrete ectopic hormones**EctopicHormone secretion from a site outside of an endocrine glandIn some cases, substances are secreted by the tumor that mimic the hormone function and result in clinical manifestations characteristic of an over secretion of that hormone.
Ex: Some tumors secrete excess ADH. ADH signals the body to retain water and sodium.The individual will present with widespread edema. This condition, when severe, can lead to coma and death.Tumors are referred to as benign or malignant. The terms refer to location and appearance related to the tissue of origin (unaffected tissue surrounding the neoplasm)Benign TumorTumors that remain localized and closely resemble the tissue of originOverproliferate but do not demonstrate a significant loss of differentiationLarge benign can impinge (invade) on nearby structures, obstruct vital functions and can evenresult in death.Malignant TumorInvasive and destructive,proliferate rapidly, metastasize( spread to other sites) and donot resemble the tissue oforiginCan promote ischemia and necrosis of tissue because the tumor uses energy and nutrients needed by unaffected tissuesLocal SpreadProliferation of the neoplasm within the tissue of origin
Direct extensionTumor cells moving into adjacent tissues and organsBeyond local tissues MalignantSeedingNeoplastic proliferation occurs within peritoneal and pleural cavities surrounding the affected tissue or organ.
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- Fall '14