IV35 Goal Setting Theory The goal setting theory posits that goals are the most

Iv35 goal setting theory the goal setting theory

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IV.3.5 Goal – Setting Theory The goal-setting theory posits that goals are the most important factors affecting the motivation and behavior of employees. Primarily Edwin Locke and Gary Latham developed this motivation theory. Goal-setting theory emphasizes the importance of specific and challenging goals in achieving motivated behavior (Gostrengths.com, 2018). 28 Professional issues & Practices Sachini Perera (Batch 80)
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Specific goals often involve quantitative targets for improvement in a behavior of interest. Research indicates that specific performance goals are much more effective than those in which a person is told to "do your best." Challenging goals are difficult but not impossible to attain. Empirical research supports the proposition that goals that are both specific and challenging are more motivational than vague goals or goals that are relatively easy to achieve (Gostrengths.com, 2018). Several factors may moderate the relationship between specific and challenging goals and high levels of motivation. The first of these factors is goal commitment, which simply means that the more dedicated the individual is to achieving the goal, the more they will be motivated to exert effort toward goal accomplishment. Some research suggests that having employees participate in goal setting will increase their level of goal commitment. A second factor relevant to goal-setting theory is self-efficacy, which is the individual's belief that he or she can successfully complete a particular task. If individuals have a high degree of self-efficacy, they are likely to respond more positively to specific and challenging goals than if they have a low degree of self-efficacy (Gostrengths.com, 2018). IV.3.6 Reinforcement Theory This theory can be traced to the work of the pioneering behaviorist B.F. Skinner. It is considered a motivation theory as well as a learning theory. Reinforcement theory posits that motivated behavior occurs as a result of reinforces, which outcomes are resulting from the behavior that makes it more likely the behavior will occur again (Study.com, 2018). This theory suggests that it is not necessary to study needs or cognitive processes to understand motivation, but that it is only necessary to examine the consequences of behavior. Behavior that is reinforced is likely to continue, but behavior that is not rewarded or behavior that is punished is not likely to be repeated. Reinforcement theory suggests to managers that they can improve employees' performance by a process of behavior modification in which they reinforce desired behaviors and punish undesired behaviors (Study.com, 2018). Alderfer’s Theory The ERG theory is an extension of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Alderfer suggested that needs could be classified into three categories, rather than five. These three types of needs are existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs are similar to Maslow's physiological and safety need categories. Relatedness needs involve interpersonal relationships, are comparable 29 Professional issues & Practices Sachini Perera (Batch 80)
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to aspects of Maslow’s belongingness, and esteem needs. Growth needs are those related to
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  • Fall '18
  • Hermione Granger
  • Management, Sachini Perera

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