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Images: Prokaryotic Cell : M. Ruiz, Other Images, Sources Unknown From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx Some bacteria have an additional layer outside of the cell wall called the glycocalyx . This additional layer can come in one of two forms: 1. Slime Layer 2. Capsule Images: Prokaryotic Cell : M. Ruiz From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx Some bacteria have an additional layer outside of the cell wall called the glycocalyx . This additional layer can come in one of two forms: 1. __________ ____________ Glycoproteins loosely associated with the cell wall. Slime layer causes bacteria to adhere to solid surfaces and helps prevent cell from drying out. Streptococcus Slime layer of Gram+ Streptococcus mutans allows it to accumulate on tooth enamel (yuck mouth and the of cavities). Other bacteria in mouth become trapped in slime, form a biofilm & eventually a buildup of plaque. Images: Slime layer , Encyclopedia Britannica; Biofilm, PHIL # 11706 From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx 2. ___________________ Polysaccharides firmly attached to the cell wall. Capsules adhere to solid surfaces and to nutrients in the environment. Adhesive power of capsules is a major factor in initiation of some bacterial diseases. Capsule also protect bacteria from being phagocytized by cells of the host’s immune system. Image: Prokaryotic Cell Diagram : M. Ruiz, Other Images Unknown Source From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes - Endospores Dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria. Q: What is the function of endospores? Resistant to radiation, desiccation, lysozyme, temperature, starvation, and chemical disinfectants. Endospores commonly found in soil and water, where they may survive for very long periods of time. An endospore stained bacterial smear of Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as green and vegetative cells as red. Images: Bacillus subtilis , SPO Science Image Library, Clostridium botulinum, PHIL #2107 Bacteria Clostridium botulinum From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Meet the Microbe: ______________ (Gram+) The members of this genus have a couple of bacterial “superpowers” that make them particularly tough pathogens. Q: Anyone know what those superpowers are? All have a strictly fermentative mode of metabolism (Don’t’ use oxygen). Vegetative cells are obligate anaerobes killed by exposure to O 2 , but their endospores are able to survive long periods of exposure to air. Clostridia are known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. - Clostridium tetani = agent of tetanus - C. botulinum = agent of botulism - C. perfringens = one of the agents of gas gangrene - C. difficile = part of natural intestinal flora, but resistant strains can proliferate and cause pseudomembranous colitis. Images: Man with Tetanus , Sir Charles Bell; Clostridium botulinum, PHIL #2107; Wet Gangrene , Wiki From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Prokaryotes – Surface Appendages Some prokaryotes have cell extensions that allow them to move about or adhere to solid surfaces.
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