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11. Garfield and Arthur1.The 1880 election pitted Garfield against Scott.1.The Republicans nominated James A. Garfield and, as his running mate, Stalwart Chester Arthur.1.Garfield was a "dark horse" candidate (a previously unknown person) but he came from the critical state of Ohio.2.The Democrats nominated Gen. Winfield Scott, the Civil War hero.3.Garfield won the election, but found himself trapped in the middle of the Republican feud between the Stalwarts and Half-Breeds.4.Garfield's Secretary of State James Blaine (Half-Breed leader) battled his arch-enemy, Stalwart Roscoe Conkling (Stalwart leader) at every chance.2.Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau in September of 1881.1.Guiteau said he was a Stalwart, like V.P. Chester Arthur, and his lawyers essentially used the insanity defense saying he didn't know right from wrong.2.Regardless, he was found guilty and hanged.3.As vice president, Chester Arthur became president.1.Despite being considered a partisan politician, Arthur was actually reform-minded. He largely stood firm against his Stalwart buddies in their quest for the riches that come with power2.The Pendleton Act was the height of political reform. It was called the "Magna Carta of civil service reform" meaning it required merit to get jobs,not simply knowing someone in a high position.3.The Civil Service Commission awarded jobs based on performance ratherthan on how much "pull" a person had (how many buddies they had in high places).
4.The Pendleton Act first affected only 10% of federal jobs, but it (a) stopped the worst offenses of giving jobs to buddies and (b) it set the tonefor civil service reform in the future.12. The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 18841.The Republicans nominated James G. Blaine for president in the 1884 election.1.Reform-minded Republicans didn't like this choice and went over to the Democrats. They were called "Mugwumps", supposedly with "their mug on one side and their wump on the other".2.The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland as their candidate.1.The mudslinging reached the worst level up until that point during the campaign. A popular topic was Cleveland's affair and the child it had produced some 8 years earlier.3.Despite the drama that Cleveland had fathered a bastard love-child, he won the election.13. “Old Grover” Takes Over1.Grover Cleveland was a Democratic president during a string of Republicans in the White House. He had a laissez-faire capitalism mindset, which made business folks very happy.2.He helped bridge the North-South gap by naming two former Confederates to hiscabinet.3.Cleveland was a man of principle who tried to do the right thing. His initial thought was to award jobs based on merit (civil service reform).4.Two former Confederates were named by Cleveland to his cabinet. He tried to follow the merit system (jobs went to the qualified), but was largely unsuccessful with this approach.1.When pressure mounted, Cleveland fired about 80,000 of 120,000 federalemployees. 40,000 were Republicans dismissed to open up jobs for Democrats.