When the sa node initiates an electrical impulse it

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When the SA node initiates an electrical impulse, it contracts the atrial chambers, thus contracting them and forcing blood through the AV valves in to the ventricles (as the AV valve is passing on the electricals signal). As the impulse reaches the bundle of HIS and moves through the perkinje fibers, the ventricles of the heart contract pushing blood out into the circuits of the body. Cardiac output is the HR x SV (stroke volume) or volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute which is dependent on electrical conduction otherwise referred to as HR (Betts, 2017). 2. If an individual had the arrhythmia condition of atrial fibrillation, the most common type of arrhythmia, what is going on with the intrinsic cardiac conduction system AND how would the cardiac cycle and cardiac output be affected? Atrial fibrillation is commonly referred to as afib and is when the atria contract very rapidly and often irregularly to the point where the ventricles do not fill up with blood effectively. Afib is the chaotic and irregular contraction of the atrial chambers out of coordination with the ventricles, S/S often include palpations, SOB, lightheadedness. Afib causes the ventricles to not completely fill as there is minimal (if any) relaxation time between beats. Afib is not life threatening in its self; however, if persistent and not treated it may lead to Heart Failure, Stroke, MI or ischemia in other organs due to inhibited blood flow by clots. Treatments for Afib may include medications to alter the heart’s conduction system (Betts, 2017). Post-Lab Evaluation Questions The post lab evaluation questions must be completed prior to your submission of the lab. Answers for these questions will be derived from the lab protocol, the weekly concepts associated with the lab and possibly research content from the book and/or online resources.
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Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these questions. 1. Describe how cardiac output and blood pressure relate to the cardiac cycle? Can you have an increase of blood pressure and not an increase in cardiac output? Why or why not? Cardiac output is calculated as HR x SV, if you were to increase BP and CO did not change this would cause a back flow of blood in to the heart and/or lungs (High Blood Pressure, 2107). 2. In your own words describe the term angiogenesis. How is angiogenesis important to the human to the human body? How does it relate to tumors and cancer? Angiogenesis is defined as the creation of new blood cells and is important to the replenishment blood cells as they age and are removed from circulation and in fighting disease. Cancer and tumors are caused by the manipulation of this process whereby cell types are warped and change to cancerous types.
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