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30.Which neuropeptide promotes wakefulness?a.Prostaglandin D2c.Hypocretinsb.L-tryptophand.Growth factorsANS: CThe hypothalamus, as a major sleep center, secretes hypocretins (orexins), which are neu-ropeptides that promote wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, as well as ap-petite, energy consumption, and pleasure or reward. The remaining options do not fulfill this objective.PTS:1REF:Page 503
31.Which term is also used to refer to paradoxic sleep?REM sleep is also known as paradoxic sleep because the electroencephalographic (EEG) pat-tern is similar to the normal awake pattern. None of the other terms are used to identify para-doxic sleep.PTS:1REF:Page 50332.The sudden apparent arousal in which a child expresses intense fear or another strong emotionwhile still in a sleep state characterizes which sleep disorder?Three types of parasomnias include arousal disorders such as confusional arousals, sleepwalk-ing (somnambulism), and night terrors (dream anxiety attacks). The remaining options do not involve a sense or expression of fear or any other strong emotion.PTS:1REF:Page 50533.Coronary artery disease is most affected by which component of sleep?Coronary artery disease is most affected during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During thiscomponent of sleep, dreams may provoke nocturnal angina, increased heart rate, and electro-cardiographic (ECG) changes. The other options are not associated with coronary artery dis-ease.PTS:1REF:Page 50634.Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs in cycles approximately every:a.45 minutesc.120 minutesb.90 minutesd.150 minutesANS: BREM sleep accounts for 20% to 25% of sleep time and is characterized by desynchronized, low-voltage, fast activity that occurs for 5 to 60 minutes approximately every 90 minutes, be-ginning after 1 to 2 hours of non-REM sleep.PTS:1REF:Page 50335.Loud snoring, a decrease in oxygen saturation, fragmented sleep, chronic daytime sleepiness,
and fatigue are clinical manifestations of which sleep disorder?
Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repetitive increases in resistance to airflow within the upper airway with loud snoring, gasping, intervals of apnea lasting from 10 to 30 seconds, fragmented sleep, and chronic daytime sleepiness and fatigue, as well as a decrease in oxygen saturation. The remaining options do not exhibit the signs and symptoms listed in the stem.PTS:1REF:Page 504