Requires road and railroads Because of the physical terrain in Iran West is

Requires road and railroads because of the physical

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Requires road and railroads Because of the physical terrain in Iran West is militarily superior Immediate answer is that Iran has to strengthen their military Too poor to afford real military Many Western innovations came to Iran Military boots Conservatives thought that they were trying to undermine religion Slippers for prayer Music Need a state of law Means putting an end to arbitrary rule Even those who have power need to be subjected to the law Eventually gives rise to the demand for a constitution Comes about in 1906 A need for educated people to follow and implement education 1851, first modern school in Iran Teachers brought from Europe Made religion a subject to be taught in school Traditional vs. modern education Missionary schools Iranians send their kids for better education A modern class of educated people emerge Start of modern middle class in Iran End of 19 th and early 20 th century sees a rise in these schools Number of educated Iranians increases Neither military progress or education is enough It is the culture that needs to change People take a critical look at Iranian culture in 1920s Lecture 3 : 26 January 2017 Nasereddin, Shah from 1848-1986 Tobacco movement of 1892 Protesting tobacco concessions to British monarchy Assassinated in 1896 Prime minister hides his death until crowned prince comes Mozaff Fareddin Shah Depleats treasury
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Takes out loans Gives other countries leverage Alliance Israelite Universal Increase in education results in increase in anger over arbitrary rule Results in a rise in secret societies Dissatisfaction with the system spreads Press becomes important, smuggled into Iran All of this emboldened by success of tobacco movement External trigger of constitution revolution: 1905 international context Russo-Japanese War, Japan defeats Russia First time an Asian defeats a European power (Big Deal) Celebrated in Iran Argued that Japan was the only Asian country with a constitution Russia was only European one without a constitution = Argument for constitutionalism Internal trigger: merchants punished for overselling goods Bastinado (degrading punishment) People gather to protest and becomes a popular movement Movement has three components: 1. Merchants in Bazaar Solidarity and networks Mosque nearby, so people won’t think they would be cheated Alliance between bazaar and mosque 2. Clergy 3. Intelligencia (people with modern education) By 1906, demands of movement became clear: Asking government for a House of Justice (aka an elected parliament) 12,000 inhabitants of Iran seek refuge at British Embassy British support modernism Embassy is sovereign territory Grounds provide safety from law By end of summer of 1906, government allows for free elections in August Parliament says that it is a Constituent Assembly Constituent Assembly writes a constitution Use Belgian constitution as model Most liberal country in Europe Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signs constitution on December 31 st , 1906 On his death bed Muhammad-Ali Shah, new Shah
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Tries to weaken the parliament
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