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Requires road and railroadsBecause of the physical terrain in IranWest is militarily superiorImmediate answer is that Iran has to strengthen their militaryToo poor to afford real military Many Western innovations came to IranMilitary bootsConservatives thought that they were trying to undermine religionSlippers for prayerMusicNeed a state of lawMeans putting an end to arbitrary ruleEven those who have power need to be subjected to the lawEventually gives rise to the demand for a constitutionComes about in 1906A need for educated people to follow and implement education1851, first modern school in IranTeachers brought from EuropeMade religion a subject to be taught in schoolTraditional vs. modern educationMissionary schoolsIranians send their kids for better educationA modern class of educated people emergeStart of modern middle class in IranEnd of 19thand early 20thcentury sees a rise in these schoolsNumber of educated Iranians increasesNeither military progress or education is enoughIt is the culture that needs to changePeople take a critical look at Iranian culture in 1920sLecture 3: 26 January 2017Nasereddin, Shah from 1848-1986Tobacco movement of 1892Protesting tobacco concessions to British monarchyAssassinated in 1896Prime minister hides his death until crowned prince comesMozaff Fareddin ShahDepleats treasury
Takes out loansGives other countries leverageAlliance Israelite UniversalIncrease in education results in increase in anger over arbitrary ruleResults in a rise in secret societiesDissatisfaction with the system spreadsPress becomes important, smuggled into IranAll of this emboldened by success of tobacco movementExternal trigger of constitution revolution: 1905 international contextRusso-Japanese War, Japan defeats Russia First time an Asian defeats a European power (Big Deal)Celebrated in IranArgued that Japan was the only Asian country with a constitutionRussia was only European one without a constitution= Argument for constitutionalism Internal trigger: merchants punished for overselling goodsBastinado (degrading punishment)People gather to protest and becomes a popular movementMovement has three components:1. Merchants in BazaarSolidarity and networksMosque nearby, so people won’t think they would be cheatedAlliance between bazaar and mosque2. Clergy3. Intelligencia (people with modern education)By 1906, demands of movement became clear:Asking government for a House of Justice (aka an elected parliament)12,000 inhabitants of Iran seek refuge at British EmbassyBritish support modernismEmbassy is sovereign territoryGrounds provide safety from lawBy end of summer of 1906, government allows for free elections in AugustParliament says that it is a Constituent AssemblyConstituent Assembly writes a constitutionUse Belgian constitution as modelMost liberal country in EuropeMozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signs constitution on December 31st, 1906On his death bedMuhammad-Ali Shah, new Shah