4 station 4 the miocene i early fossil apes proconsul

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Chapter 1 / Exercise 013
Biology
Martin/Solomon
Expert Verified
Station 4: The Miocene I – Early Fossil Apes, Proconsul (2 pts.) The fossil record suggests that hominoids and cercopithecoids diverged by the Late Oligocene (at least 25 mya), however the record for both groups is very poor until the Miocene. Among early ape taxa, none is better represented or more iconic than the genus Proconsul , found throughout the volcanic rift valleys of Kenya and Uganda. Use the macaque, chimpanzee and Proconsul materials along with the handouts at this station to answer the questions below. 1. List at least one cranio-dental characteristic that groups Proconsul with hominoids to the exclusion of cercopithecoids. 2. Compare the skeleton of Proconsul on the handout to the articulated skeletons of a chimpanzee and a macaque. In the table below, name one similarity and one difference between each taxon and Proconsul . Chimpanzee Macaque Trait which differs from Proconsul Trait shared with Proconsul 3. Using what you’ve learned about relative limb proportions and primate locomotion, what kind of locomotion does the macaque have vs. the chimpanzee in the trees ? Do the limb proportions of Proconsul more closely resemble the macaque or the chimpanzee?
4 *Is this what you would expect in a hominoid ancestor based on the style of arboreal locomotion in modern hominoids? Why? *
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Biology
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Chapter 1 / Exercise 013
Biology
Martin/Solomon
Expert Verified
5 Station 5: The Miocene through Pleistocene – Fossil Apes in Asia (1 pt.) During the Miocene, a dispersal of larger-bodied, thick-enameled apes from Africa into Eurasia formed the basis of a radiation thought to produce both the ancestor to modern orangutans and the largest primate to ever live: Gigantopithecus . Use the fossil material and handouts at this station to answer the following questions about members of this radiation. 1. Sivapithecus (15-9 mya) is an ape fossil found in Pakistan and northwestern India that is thought to be an early relative of orangutans. Describe two characteristics shared between Sivapithecus and the orangutan, to the exclusion of the chimpanzee 2. Fossils of Gigantopithecus were first discovered in a Chinese apothecary shop, and have since been found in Vietnam and India. Little is known of Gigantopithecus besides teeth, but primate molar size and body size are tightly correlated. Measure the length and width of the Gigantopithecus tooth provided at this station (in millimeters) and follow the directions below to estimate its body size. Length of tooth: ______________________ mm Width of tooth: ______________________mm *You may complete the following calculation as part of your homework. Google has a scientific calculator if you need one. * 1. Multiply length x width, then take the natural log (LN) of this product: LN(length x width) 2. Multiply your answer from above x 1.5, then add 3.55: (Answer x 1.5) + 3.55 3. Raise the number e (~2.72) to the power of your answer from above: e ^ Answer 4. Divide your answer by 1,000 then multiply by 2.2 to get weight: ( Answer / 1,000) x 2.2 5. Record your length, width, and final answer in the equation below: e ^((LN( _______ x _______ ) x 1.5) + 3.55) / 1,000 x 2.2 = ____________ pounds Length Width Body Weight length (in mm) width (in mm)

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