41 what is the difference between type i diabetes

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41. What is the difference between type I diabetes mellitus and type II diabetes mellitus?1 Type I diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, or insulin- dependent diabetes (this name is not adequate, since type II diabetes may become insulin-dependent), is the impaired production of insulin by the pancreas, and is believed to be caused by the destruction of the cells of the islets of Langerhans by autoantibodies (autoimmunity).
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Type II diabetes occurs adults and it is often diagnosed in older people. In type II diabetes, the pancreas secretes normal or low levels of insulin, but the main cause of the high glycemia is the peripheral resistance of the cells to the action of the hormone. 42. In ancient Greece, the father of Medicine, Hippocrates, described a method of diagnosing diabetes mellitus by tasting the patient's urine. What is the physiological explanation for this archaic method? Under normal conditions, the glucose filtered by renal glomeruli is almost entirely reabsorbed in the nephron tubules and is not excreted in urine. With elevated blood glucose levels, the renal tubules cannot reabsorb all the filtered glucose and a certain amount of the substance appears in the urine. This amount is enough to provide the sweet taste that helped Hippocrates diagnose diabetes and differentiate it from other diseases accompanied by polyuria. Nowadays, this method is not used due to the danger of contaminating the tester with disease agents possibly present in the patient's urine. The Endocrine System - Image Diversity: Hippocrates 43. What are the main treatments for diabetes mellitus? The general goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain normal glycemic levels.
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Type I diabetes is treated with the parenteral administration of insulin. Insulin must be administered intravenously or intramuscularly because, as a protein, it will be digested if ingested orally. In type II diabetes, treatment is done with oral drugs that regulate glucose metabolism or, in more severe cases, with parenteral insulin administration. The moderation of carbohydrate ingestion is an important aid in diabetes treatment. Diabetes treatment with the use of hypoglycemic agents, such as insulin or oral medicines, must be carefully and medically supervised, since if wrongly used, these drugs may abruptly decrease the blood glucose levels, causing hypoglycemia and even death. Many other forms of diabetes treatment are being researched worldwide. 44. How can bacteria produce human insulin on an industrial scale? What are other forms of insulin are made available by the pharmaceutical industry? Bacteria do not naturally synthesize insulin. However, it is possible to implant human genetic material containing the insulin gene into bacterial DNA. The mutant bacteria then multiply and produce human insulin. The insulin is isolated and purified for subsequent sale. This biotechnology is known as recombinant DNA technology.
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In addition to human insulin, the pharmaceutical industry also produces insulin to be used by humans made from the pancreas of pigs and cows.
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