If using a single standard parallel case, and the scale factor is 1.0, the standard parallel.
If using a single standard parallel and the scale factor is less than 1.0, the cone cuts the
spheroid along two parallels.
Linear Graticules
All meridians.
Properties
Shape :
All graticular intersections are 90°. Small shapes are maintained.
Area :
Minimal distortion near the standard parallels. Areal scale is reduced between standard
parallels and increased beyond them.
Direction :
Local angles are accurate throughout because of conformality.
Distance :
Correct scale along the standard parallels. The scale is reduced between the parallels
and increased beyond them.
Limitations :
Best for regions predominantly east–west in extent and located in the middle north
or south latitudes. Total latitude range should not exceed
35°
.

Engr. Md. Shahidul Islam, +8801713062224,
[email protected]
,
[email protected]
,
28.
Map Projection Parameters
Following Projection Parameters are mostly used in different Projection Systems:
Spheroid:
Name of the Spheroid
Central Meridian:
defines the origin of the x-coordinate
Single Standard Parallel:
If using a single standard parallel case, and the scale factor is
1.0, the standard parallel.
1st standard parallel (Besides Equator):
for conic projections to define the latitude
lines where the scale is 1.0
2nd standard parallel (Besides Pole):
for conic projections to define the latitude lines
where the scale is 1.0
Latitude of Origin:
defines the origin of the y coordinates
False Easting:
linear value applied to the origin of the x coordinates
False Northing:
linear value applied to the origin of the y coordinates
Scale Factor:
scale factor be is used by the projection System
29.
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinate System
UTM
system is
transverse-secant cylindrical projection
,
dividing the surface of the Earth
into
6 degree
zones with a central meridian in the center of the zone. each one of zones is
a different Transverse Mercator projection that is slightly rotated to use a different
meridian.
UTM zone numbers designate 6 degree longitudinal strips extending from 80 degrees
South latitude to 84 degrees North latitude.
UTM is a
conformal
projection, so small features appear with the correct shape and
scale is the same in all directions. (
all distances, directions, shapes, and areas are
reasonably accurate
).
Scale factor is 0.9996 at the central meridian and at most 1.0004 at the edges of the
zones.
UTM
coordinates are in meters, making it easy to make accurate calculations of short
distances between points (error is less than 0.04%)
Used in USGS topographic map, and digital elevation models (DEMs)
Although the distortions of the UTM system are small, they are too great for some
accurate surveying.

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- Spring '18
- dr. Kalimur Rahaman
- Map projection, Equator, SHAHIDUL ISLAM, Engr. Md