If using a single standard parallel case, and the scale factor is 1.0, the standard parallel. If using a single standard parallel and the scale factor is less than 1.0, the cone cuts the spheroid along two parallels. Linear Graticules All meridians. Properties Shape : All graticular intersections are 90°. Small shapes are maintained. Area : Minimal distortion near the standard parallels. Areal scale is reduced between standard parallels and increased beyond them. Direction : Local angles are accurate throughout because of conformality. Distance : Correct scale along the standard parallels. The scale is reduced between the parallels and increased beyond them. Limitations : Best for regions predominantly east–west in extent and located in the middle north or south latitudes. Total latitude range should not exceed 35° .
Engr. Md. Shahidul Islam, +8801713062224, [email protected] , [email protected] , 28. Map Projection Parameters Following Projection Parameters are mostly used in different Projection Systems: Spheroid: Name of the Spheroid Central Meridian: defines the origin of the x-coordinate Single Standard Parallel: If using a single standard parallel case, and the scale factor is 1.0, the standard parallel. 1st standard parallel (Besides Equator): for conic projections to define the latitude lines where the scale is 1.0 2nd standard parallel (Besides Pole): for conic projections to define the latitude lines where the scale is 1.0 Latitude of Origin: defines the origin of the y coordinates False Easting: linear value applied to the origin of the x coordinates False Northing: linear value applied to the origin of the y coordinates Scale Factor: scale factor be is used by the projection System 29. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Coordinate System UTM system is transverse-secant cylindrical projection , dividing the surface of the Earth into 6 degree zones with a central meridian in the center of the zone. each one of zones is a different Transverse Mercator projection that is slightly rotated to use a different meridian. UTM zone numbers designate 6 degree longitudinal strips extending from 80 degrees South latitude to 84 degrees North latitude. UTM is a conformal projection, so small features appear with the correct shape and scale is the same in all directions. ( all distances, directions, shapes, and areas are reasonably accurate ). Scale factor is 0.9996 at the central meridian and at most 1.0004 at the edges of the zones. UTM coordinates are in meters, making it easy to make accurate calculations of short distances between points (error is less than 0.04%) Used in USGS topographic map, and digital elevation models (DEMs) Although the distortions of the UTM system are small, they are too great for some accurate surveying.
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- Map projection, Equator, SHAHIDUL ISLAM, Engr. Md