Environmental Laws Applicable to Construction and Operation of Biodiesel Production Facilities U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 7 good or better than the standards for a criteria pollutant are classified as attainment areas for that pollutant. Areas that do not meet the standards for a criteria pollutant are classified as nonattainment areas for that pollutant. Consequently, an area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for another. The attainment/nonattainment designation may change over time. Attainment/nonattainment status can be determined from 40 CFR Part 81 or at: During the production of biodiesel, criteria pollutants are released into the air. If the oilseeds are processed at the plant, particulate matter (including tiny particulates less than 10 microns in diameter known as particulate matter or PM 10 ) are released during receipt and handling of the seeds. Particulate matter could also be released during the mechanical extraction process. During the chemical extraction process and oil pretreatment process, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. Some of these organic compounds are known as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which include methanol and hexane. The biodiesel reaction process units include reactors, decanters, wash tanks, stripper columns, and distillation columns. This process will emit VOCs, including hexane (when chemically extracted soybean oil is used), methanol and/ or ethanol (depending on the alcohol used in the reaction process). To control air emissions from this process, condensers, scrubbers, and process flares are generally used. The combustion process from boilers which provide the steam and energy to the process equipment, emergency backup equipment, and the flares generate combustion byproducts such as nitrogen oxides ( NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide ( SO 2 ), PM 10 , PM 2.5 (particulates less than 2.5 microns in diameter), VOCs and HAPs. Emissions may also result from other activities and equipment such as storage tanks, biodiesel and glycerin load out, (VOCs and HAPs), fugitive emissions from equipment leaks (VOCs and HAPs), and from cooling towers and haul roads (particulate matter). Stationary sources are required to obtain a construction permit before the construction of a new facility or before modifying an existing source. The Clean Air Act requires that certain permits be obtained to minimize air emissions and protect human health and the environment before construction begins on a biodiesel plant. These permits are described hereafter. CHAPTER 1 - WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS APPLY WHEN I'M PLANNING TO BUILD OR MODIFY A BIODIESEL PLANT? � CHAPTER 1 - PAGE 12 �
Permits are legal documents which include requirements that the source must follow throughout the life of the facility.
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- Fall '19
- Sula, Drinking water, United States Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency