Unfortunately the rise of the napatan kingdom during

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Unfortunately, the rise of the Napatan Kingdom during Taharqa’s reign coincidedwith the peak of Assyrian’s invasions. The Assyrians had earlier attacked and seizedMemphis in Egypt, thereby driving Taharqa from Tanis, the south of Memphis in 671BC.Despite the strong resistance posed by Taharqa to the military power and expansionistpolicy of the Assyrians, two Assyrian attacks resulted in the destruction of Thebes inEgypt and retiring of Tanwetamani (the king who had succeeded the weakened Thaharqa)to his homeland capital Napata. This event marked the end of the Nubian relationshipwith Egypt and the beginning of Kushite’s rule in their own indigenous country.49On thebasis of the location of the Royal Cemeteries – one at El-kurru near Napata, another atNurri, Barkal and the last at Meroe, the periods of the Kingdom of Kush can be divided9
into two: The Napatan Period (until C. 295BC) and the Meroitic Period (until AD350).50however, the Nubian Kingdom of Napata came to an end according to available evidence,during the reign of king Arakakamani, who was called Ergames in Greek literature (c.295 – 275BC).51He began the Meroitic Kingdom but before the rise of Meroe, previousNubian kings who preceded Eragames were severally attacked by the Saite DynastyPharaohs (Psammenticus I and II had reigned after the expulsion of XXV Dynasty byAssyrians). These were helped by their Greek and Carian Mercenaries. The result of theirattack culminated in the sack of Napata in 591BC.52Moreover, during the Napatan period, the kingdom grew to become very famousfor its great religious center, which was the temple of Amun at Gebel barkal (also called“Holy Mountain”). It was here that any chosen kind was sanctioned by Amun-Re and hispriest before he could ascend the throne, hence the enjoyment of power by these priests.Also, the Amun priest had the priviledge of getting rid of any erring king by a method ofsending a message to him on the receipt of which he was expected to commit suicide. ButErgamenes was the first king to break this ancient custom. He carried out a revolution bykilling all Amun priest abolishing regicide and then re-establishing a new capitalkingdom of Kush at Meroe. He was in fact the first king to be buried at Meroe.53The Meroitic kingdom of Nubia began when the capital of the Kushite kingdomwas shifted to Meroe. The actual date of this move, the glorious rise of Meriotic phaseand reasons for it are very obscure. Apart from political and military events which led tothe sack of the Napatan kingdom, the more favourable economic resources, which werecharacteristic of Meroe must have been responsible for this move of the kingdom’scapital.10
Moroe54was located between the fifth and sixth Cataracts on the east bank of theNile and lay about 120 miles north of Khartoum, the capital of the modern Sudan. It hadthe floods of two great rivers – the Nile and its tributary, Atbara, both of which favouredthe cultivation of crops and herds on a large scale. The kingdom of Meroe, besides its rise

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Term
Winter
Professor
Mrs. cooper
Tags
The Iliad, Nubia

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