O gaseous portioncarbon moves as carbon dioxide co 2

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o Gaseous portion—carbon moves as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Free gas in atmosphere Dissolved gas in fresh and saltwater
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o Sedimentary portion—carbon moves as carbohydrate molecules in  organic matter Hydrocarbon compounds in rock (petroleum, coal) Mineral carbonate compounds such as calcium carbonate  (CaCO 3 ) Aerosols : tiny particles present in the atmosphere, so small and light that  the slightest air movements keep them aloft.  o Aerosols decrease the amount of sunlight reaching the surface o They can make clouds more reflective, further decreasing the  amount of sunlight reaching the surface o Dust, salt, meteors, fuel burning and smoke are examples of  aerosols Ozone : form of oxygen with a molecule consisting of three atoms of  oxygen, O 3 . o Found mostly in the upper part of the atmosphere, about 14-50 km  above the surface in a layer called the stratosphere.  o Produced in gaseous chemical reactions that require energy in the  form of ultraviolet radiation o Ozone (O 3 ), molecular oxygen (O 2 ) and atomic oxygen (O) are  constantly formed, destroyed and re-formed in the ozone layer,  absorbing UV radiation with each transformation o The ozone layer absorbs UV light from the Sun, protecting Earth’s  surface from the damage ozone is essential for life to survive o Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a form of air pollution, reduce ozone  concentrations substantially CFCs are synthetic industrial chemical compounds  containing chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms o The hole in the ozone layer is over the continent of Antarctica The ozone layer thins during the early spring of the southern  hemisphere, reaching a minimum during October. The hole then slowly shrinks and ultimately disappears in  early December o Ozone in the lower atmosphere—the troposphere—acts as a very  strong pollutant.  Principal component of smog, which greatly reduces  visibility. 
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Lapse rate : the rate at which temperature drops with increasing height.  Environmental Lapse Rate : the rate at which the actual temperature at a  particular location and time drops with increasing height. Troposphere:  the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature  falls steadily with increasing height.  Tropopause:  the level of the atmosphere between the troposphere and  stratosphere, where temperatures stop decreasing with height and start  increasing.  Stratosphere:  the layer of atmosphere directly above the troposphere;  here temperature increases with altitude.  Ionosphere:  layer of the upper atmosphere characterized by the presence  of ions.  Ion:  electrically charged atom or molecule. 
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