of the “great instauration,” or the promotion of obtaining useful knowledge, which led to experimentation becoming a legitimate and socially acceptable practice (24). Useful knowledge was defined by Francis Bacon as, “knowledge that could be applied for the benefit of man, rather than just idle speculations and beliefs.” Science provided useful ideas and techniques that would be used in society. In return, scientists demanded legitimacy and academic freedom acknowledged by the state (22). During the Scientific Revolution in the seventeenth century, there was a mass creation of new theories, methods, instruments, and organizations for the making of knowledge (22). These events were fundamental in making science and
experimentation an academic culture. This different way of thinking led to the validity of scientists such as Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton and the birth of modern science. It is often thought that the Scientific Revolution was the event that adopted science as a legitimate and acceptable study. However, the important point that the authors are trying to make is that it was not a singular event or person which influenced or made modern science. It is extremely fascinating to learn all the small events which led to the legitimacy and acceptance of modern science as a whole. It was a collective effort from many different groups of people, The Diggers and their introduction of useful experimentation and knowledge, the Christian monks which created places where they could practice their innovative activities after the fall of Rome, and the continuous waves of monasticism which “provided crucial cultural contexts for the eventual combination of scientific and technical knowledge” (28). These are just a few of the many events that occurred which led to science becoming an acceptable and valid practice, a practice which has undoubtedly changed the world for the better.