The results indicated that npds with suds hide their

Info icon This preview shows pages 14–16. Sign up to view the full content.

The results indicated that NPD’s with SUD’s hide their needs and/or weaknesses from others that make them feel weak. They also devalue both themselves and others when their expectations are not met. Particularly, with SUD’s when external needs of validation are not met, rage and fury arise (Karakoula & Trivila, 2016). Based on psychotherapeutic work with NPD and SUD’s, many clinicians speculate a narcissistic disturbance preexists and dialetically interacts with addiction to further dysregulate narcissistic functions, namely the emotional and self-esteem regulation (Karakoula & Trivila, 2016). Other narcissistic traits linked to addiction are aggressiveness, antagonism, egocentricity, vanity, authority, exploitation, entitlement and exhibitionism (Karakoula & Trivila, 2016). One area of caution with regard to SUD and NPD is chronic substance abuse can affect psychological functioning to simulate NPD. Substances can cause an individual to become exploitative, self- focused, lack empathy, and ruthless (Karakoula & Trivila, 2016). Unfortunately, severe cases of NPD and SUD have a less than favorable prognosis. Treatments for NPD that have been most influential include focusing on clinical developments in the relationship between the patient and the therapist, long-term such as mentalization-based therapy, transference-focused therapy, and schema-based therapy. All three treatments target psychological capacities thought to underlie and organize descriptive features of NPD (Calligor, et. al., 2015). A challenge in treating this disorder is the drop-out rate of individuals. NPD is a chronic life-long disorder with symptomology based on severity. Given the distrustful nature of NPD, internal fluctuations, unfolding of deeper trauma and possible attachment patterns, NPD’s pose to be difficult to build therapeutic alliance and activate new risks of disruptions requiring continual reassessing (Ronningstam, 2017). Biblical Worldview
Image of page 14

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 15 Mental illness can be seen as similar to other medical illnesses. Humans are complex compositions of our souls and bodies including the brain. Mental illness can be seen in the functioning areas of the brain in nearly every disorder noted. To treat mental illness as purely a spiritual disorder would be a disservice to our work as Christians. As individuals suffer with afflictions, pain and struggles, Christian servants need to be mindful of what needs to be heard and understood by those that are suffering. In Roman 8:22, Paul writes, “For we know that the whole creating has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. And, not only the creation, but we ourselves who have the first fruits of the spirit groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies” (NKJV). The brain, like any other organ is subject to illness. Paul speaks of the time that is coming wherein we will all receive heavenly bodies. The symptoms are physical symptoms of chemical imbalances, brain
Image of page 15
Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Spring '18
  • Borderline personality disorder, Antisocial personality disorder, Narcissistic personality disorder

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern