In 581 yang jian replaced northern zhou with sui and

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Wen. Thus the Sui Dynasty was founded, with Chang'an the capital and Luoyang the auxiliary capital. In 589, the Sui Court defeated the last of the Southern Dynasties, Chen, and unified the whole nation. As a result of the reunification, the society became stable and peaceful which encouraged economic and political development. At the beginning, the agricultural acreage increased greatly which promoted the crop yield. The skills industry made some new advances with the shipbuilding technology reaching a new high level. Meanwhile, the commerce in Luoyang was fairly prosperous and in order to develop the national economy, a series of policies,such as Juntian System and Zutiao System, was carried out. This equally distributed the farmlandand moderated the tax rates while increasing the fiscal revenue. In order to enhance the communication between southern and northern areas, Emperor Yang ordered his people to dredge a grand canal running from north and south. Centering on Luoyang, the Grand Canal was more than 2.5 miles long and functioned as the main artery in the Nation's transportation. The Grand Canal played an important role in economic and cultural exchange between southern and northern areas. There were also many changes in political life. A new political system - Three Departments and Six Ministries was established - the first in Chinese history. Under this system, the royal power was enhanced and the work division in the court became detailed. Since this dynasty, the method of selecting talent was thoroughly overhauled.
The Tang dynasty was founded in 618, and lasted until 907. The emperor was supreme andgovernment officials were chosen by examination. A census was taken to simplify tax collectionand to draft citizens to perform labor for the empire. This was a period of great land expansion.The emperor also had a great love of the arts, and the Tang became known as the golden age ofliterature and art. Block printing was invented and made writing more available. Shipbuildingand firearms development were also refined during the era. Art was heavily influenced byBuddhism, especially rock sculpture. One major problem that arose was the heavy burden oftaxation. Many were unable to meet their heavy tax burden. In addition, at the end of Sui

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