Heredity environment flynn effect historical changes

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Heredity Environment Flynn Effect – historical changes in IQ scores Intervention programs Group Differences in Intelligence Gender Differences Females are better at: Verbal ability Detecting emotion Males are better at: Math Spatial ability Ethnic Differences Racial group difference in average IQ score Why? Socioeconomic Status (SES) To an extent, difference in IQ scores reflect group differences in SES Differences are reduced when comparing groups of similar SES Experience with test content
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Differences may reflect bias in the tests themselves Led to development of culture-fair intelligence tests Stereotype threats Considered a self-fulfilling prophecy Knowledge of a stereotype leads to anxiety and reduced performance Developmental Psychology The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout their lifespan Major Issues in Development Opposing forces present in our lives Nature vs. Nurture Continuity vs. Stages (ex. language) Stability vs. Change (ex. personality) In-utero Stages Conception Union of sperm and egg Prenatal (3 periods) Zygote – begins at fertilization, ends at implantation Embryonic – formation of major organs, sex differentiation Fetal – more complex organs, viable at 6 months Influences on Prenatal Development Maternal Nutrition (eating properly) Teratogens – agents that can negatively affect fetus
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Maternal illness/disease Drugs, alcohol, cigarettes Some prescription meds The Newborn Reflexes – automatic responses Rooting Stroke baby’s check, it turns head and opens mouth Sucking It will suck anything in its mouth Withdraw Will pull back if pricked Palmer Grab objects in its palm Stepping Hold baby upright and it has walking rhythm Motor Skills Sitting = 6 months Crawling = 8 months Walking = 1 year Cognitive Development 2 assumptions Assimilation – new experiences are incorporated into existing theories
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Accommodation – theories are modified based on experience Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensory-motor Birth – 2 years Experience the world through senses and actions Object permanence Exist even when out of sight   Preoperational Age 2-7 Able to use symbols Thinking is still limited: Egocentrism – having trouble seeing from another’s perspective Animalism – give lifelike properties to inanimate objects Centration – narrowly focused thoughts Task based (“pour glass of milk”) Concrete Operational Age 7-11 Use mental operations Mental operation = strategies and rules Can be reversed (ex. numbers) Formal Operational Age 11-adulthood Can think hypothetically and reason deductively
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Attachment Strong emotional attachment between infants and their caregivers Origins
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