Scheduling this deals with the timing of various

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Scheduling: This deals with the timing of various activities. In job shop type or operations scheduling discussions are very important which determine the system effectiveness, (e.g. customer delivery) as well as the system efficiency (e.g. the productive, use of the machinery and labor). Scheduling is often done on day-to-day basis. It is of immediate significance for the lower managerial and first line supervisory positions. Mass production systems may not have the need for day-to-day planning, because the operations are repetitive or continuous for several days together. The production levels, the necessary production facilities, inputs and manpower requirements have to be planned for a long stretch of time, as long as the production over. Techniques such as Line Balancing could be used for optimum utilization of the resources. The term ‘control’ implies the establishment of standards and objectives, the co-ordination of the various stages and the variation of plans as dictated by the circumstances. Proper control of production is one of the important Tasks of production management. That is why, even though production planning and control are separate aspects, the two functions are closely related. As such, in practice, these two functions are combined in one department. The production control department is concerned with the whole sequence of operations involved in manufacturing, starting from designing the product, planning the method of production, purchasing, storing, and materials, management of personnel, inspection and maintenance. These are being discussed in a detailed manner under the following titles. These functions consist of the following: Planning, Routing, Scheduling, Dispatching, Expediting and Controlling or Follow-up. 9.3.6 PLANNING PHASES Planning is affected by type of product - larger or smaller size, seasonal, analytical or synthetic, type of manufacturing systems - continuous, job shop, or batch production. Planning phase consists of the following: Investigation about the complete details and requirements of the product to be manufactured. Estimation of future demand (forecasting) Planning the design, quality and quantity of the product to be manufactured, and the sequence of operations Determination of material requirement, its quantity and quality, equipment and its capacity, manpower need, and transportation needs Detailed drawing of components and their assemblies
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120 Information about the stores and delivery times Information about the equipment, their capacity and specifications Information regarding standard times for the product Information about the market conditions Type of workers employed and their salaries 9.3.6.1 Routing or Sequencing According to Sprigel and Lansburg, “Routing includes the p lanning of where and by whom work shall be done, the determination of the path that work shall follow and the necessary sequence of operations. It forms the basis for most of the scheduling and dispatching techniques of planning.” Kimball and Kimball also
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