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Texts are produced for particular contexts, that is, with particular purposes and audiences in mind. Different kinds of texts that follow particular conventions in terms of structure, grammar and vocabulary can be distinguished and these are referred to as genres. For instance, the structure and language of a play differ from those found in a poem or a short story. In the same way, a report differs from a procedure (set of instructions) or from a letter of complaint. These differences can be accounted for in terms of their different audiences and purposes. The register of texts also differs along a continuum from less to more formal, according to the social relationship of the participants. Learners need to be able to understand and produce a range of different genres using format, layout, structure, grammar and register appropriately. Texts reflect the cultural, social and political contexts in which they are created. The language used in texts carries messages regarding the cultural and social values and political views of the writers –and thus, texts are not neutral. Learners need to be able to interpret and respond to the values, attitudes and indigenous knowledge systems reflected in texts. Learners are also expected to explain how language and images may reflect and shape values and attitudes. They are expected to identify and explain socio-cultural or political values, attitudes and beliefs, such as attitudes regarding gender, class, age, power, human rights, inclusivity and environmental issues that are either explicit or implicit in texts. In a text-based approach, language is explored in texts and texts are explored relative to their contexts. The approach pays attention to formal aspects of language (grammar and vocabulary), but these are viewed in terms of their effects and not studied or analysed in an isolated way. Learners need to understand metalanguage to discuss texts; they need the words to describe different aspects of grammar, vocabulary and style and how these function in texts.