Networks are extremely complex network consists of

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Why using “protocol layers”?
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Networks are Extremely Complex Network consists of many “pieces” Hosts Routers Links of various media Applications Hardware, software The network does much for apps Make and break connections Find a path through the network Transfers information reliably Send as fast as the network allows Shares bandwidth among users Secures information in transit We need a form of modularity, to help manage complexity and support reuse
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Organization of air travel ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing airplane routing Ticket Baggage Gate Takeoff/Landing Airplane routing Layers : each layer implements a service by Perform certain actions within the layer Using the services of the layer directly below it
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Protocols and Layers Protocols and layering is the main structure method used to divide up network functionality Each instance of a protocol talks virtually to its peer using the protocol Each instance of a protocol uses only the services of the lower layer
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Internet protocol stack Set of protocols in use in called a protocol stack e.g., web browser e.g., web server e.g., HTTP
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  • Spring '16
  • World Wide Web, Internet protocol stack, HTTP message

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