Accident and Loss Statistics_Formulas

Table 1 5 three types of chemical plant accidents

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TABLE 1-5 THREE TYPES OF CHEMICAL PLANT ACCIDENTS Type of accident Probability of occurrence Potential for fatalities Potential for economic loss Fire High Low Intermediate Explosion Intermediate Intermediate High Toxic Release Low High Low Human Error: is frequently used to describe a cause for losses. Almost all accidents, except those caused by natural hazards, can be attributed to human error. The Accident Process: Accidents follow a three step process: Initiation: The event that starts the accident. Propagation The event or events that maintain or expand the accident. Termination The event or events that stop the accident or diminish it in size. Safety Engineering: involves eliminating the initiating step and replacing the propagation steps by termination events.
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CHE – 4284/5292 Industrial Safety Accident and Loss Statistics Concepts and Formulas TABLE 1-6 DEFEATING THE ACCIDENT PROCESS Step Desired Effect Procedure Initiation Diminish Grounding and Bonding Inerting Explosion proof electrical Guardrails and guards Maintenance procedures Hot-work permits Human factors design Process design Awareness of dangerous properties of chemicals Propagation Diminish Emergency material transfer Reduce inventories of flammables Equipment spacing and layout Nonflammable construction materials Installation of check and emergency shut-off valves Termination Increase Firefighting equipment and procedures Relief systems Sprinkler systems Installation of check and emergency shut-off valves
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CHE – 4284/5292 Industrial Safety Accident and Loss Statistics Concepts and Formulas Fatal Accident Rate (FAR): This method is mostly used in the British Chemical Industry. This method is dependent on the number of exposed hours. Reports the number of fatalities based on 1000 employees working their entire lifetime. The employees are assumed to work at total of 50 years. FAR is based on 10 8 working hours. Plant Total FAR: = i i TOTAL FAR FAR Individual worker FAR: = i i i A FAR X FAR Where, X i barb2right Time fraction FAR i barb2right FAR of particular process unit
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CHE – 4284/5292 Industrial Safety Accident and Loss Statistics Concepts and Formulas
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