Leakage current and threshold voltage which establish

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“leakage current” and “threshold voltage”, which establish a baseline of power per transistor. As transistors get smaller, power density increases because these don’t scale with size These created a “Power Wall” that has limited practical processor frequency to around 4 GHz since 2006
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11 Historical Clock Rates 10 100 1,000 10,000 1/1/80 1/1/84 1/1/88 1/1/92 1/1/96 1/1/00 1/1/04 1/1/08 1/1/12 Clock (MHz)
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12 Prediction Trends 1 10 100 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 On Chip Clock Rate (GHz) 1999 2001 2004 2006 2008 2010 2011 2012 TOP500 top clock Figure 3.14. On-chip Clock from ITRS.
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13 Questions • True or False: Moore's law says that computer performance doubles every 18-24 months • True or False: Moore’s law allows us to predict future properties in the same way that the law of gravity allows us to predict the path of a planet around the sun.
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14 Questions • If the number of transistors per unit area (i.e., on the same chip size) doubles every 24 months: By what factor does the length of the side of a transistor, assuming it is square, decrease every year? Starting with a length of 18.4nm (2014), what would be the size of a transistor in 2025? How does this compare to the ITRS value of 6.75um?
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  • Spring '17
  • Junaid Haroon
  • Hertz, Clock rate, Central processing unit, Dennard Scaling

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