exam_2012-fall-1-answers

Cl kv 1 hr 1 x 20 l 20 lhr is the clearance 1 mark q

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Cl = kV = 1 hr -1 X 20 L = 20 L/hr is the clearance (1 mark) Q = D m /T m . If Q = 200 mg/hr and T m = 4 hr then D m = 800 mg must be given if injected every four hours (1 mark).
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22. What is meant by enterohepatic circulation? ( 1 mark ) . If a drug (perhaps conjugated) is excreted via bile from the gall bladder into the intestine , it may be reabsorbed and travel back to the liver via the portal vein, to once again possibly be excreted via bile. This intestine to liver to gall bladder to intestine loop is referred to as enterohepatic circulation of a drug. 23. What are the three types of capillaries? Briefly explain how they differ from one another ( 3 marks ) 1. Capillaries with maculae (majority of capillaries) have macular junctions between capillary wall cells. Hence there are extra cellular spaces around these maculae through which drugs can travel. 2. Fenestrated capillaries are found in excretory and secretory organs. Fenestrae (windows) through cell membrane allow drugs to enter/leave cells. 3. Occluded capillaries have their inter cellular spaces completely blocked off; these make up the blood-brain barrier that protects the brain from toxins. 24. BONUS. What differentiates a drug receptor from a non-specific binding site? (1 mark ). Binding of a drug to a receptor elicits a functional effect . No functional effect is observed if a drug binds to a non-specific binding site .
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