4) Oil Pollution caused by oil spills from tankers and oil from ship travel. Oil does not dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge. 5) Burning fossil fuels into the air causes the formation of acidic particles in the atmosphere. When these particles mix with water vapor, the result is acid rain. 6) An increase in water temperature is caused by global warming and thermal plants that use lakes and rivers to cool down mechanical equipment. CAUSE OF MARINE POLLUTION Land-based activities Sea-based activities Volume of vessel traffic and off-shore oil and gas activities are increasing Primary concern in marine pollution - operational, accidental or deliberate discharge of oil or mixture containing oil by ships particularly oil tankers traversing the Straits of Malacca and South China Sea. Marine pollution is transboundary. Accidental discharge 2
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : LAW OF ENVIRONMENT (WATER POLLUTION) Year Ship Caused Oil Spilled (ton) Type 2000 MT Natuna Sea Grounded 7,000 Crude Oil 3
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : LAW OF ENVIRONMENT (WATER POLLUTION) Year Ship Caused Oil Spilled (ton) Type of Oil 2010 Bunga Kelana 3 Collision 2,755 Crude Oil 4
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : LAW OF ENVIRONMENT (WATER POLLUTION) EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION 1) Groundwater contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage within wildlife in ecosystems. 2) Sewage, fertilizer, and agricultural run-off contain organic materials that when discharged into waters, increase the growth of algae, which causes the depletion of oxygen. The low oxygen levels are not able to support most indigenous organisms in the area and therefore upset the natural ecological balance in rivers and lakes. 5
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : LAW OF ENVIRONMENT (WATER POLLUTION) 3) Swimming in and drinking contaminated water causes skin rashes and health problems like cancer, reproductive problems, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in humans. Which is why it is very important to make sure that your water is clean and safe to drink. 4) Industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides that end up in aquatic environments can accumulate in fish that are later eaten by humans. Fish are easily poisoned with metals that are also later consumed by humans. Mercury is particularly poisonous to small 6
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : LAW OF ENVIRONMENT (WATER POLLUTION) children and women. Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the nervous system in fetuses and young children. 5) Ecosystems are destroyed by the rising temperature in the water, as coral reefs are affected by the bleaching effect due to warmer temperatures. Additionally, the warm water forces indigenous water species to seek cooler water in other areas, causing an ecological damaging shift of the affected area. 7
GROUP ASSIGNMENT : LAW OF ENVIRONMENT (WATER POLLUTION) 6) Human-produced litter of items such as plastic bags and 6-pack rings can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation.