At the top are fillets of hammered gold that would have been worn around the forehead.The other ornaments include bangles, chokers, long pendant necklaces, rings, earrings, conical hair ornaments, and broaches. These ornaments were never buried with the dead, but were passed on from one generation to the next. These ornaments were hidden under the floors in the homes of wealthy merchants or goldsmiths.
NecklaceNecklace from Mohenjo-Daro made from gold, agate, jasper, steatite and green stone. The gold beads are hollow and the pendant agate and jasper beads are attached with thick gold wire.Steatite beads with gold caps serve to separate each of the pendant beads.
BurialThe body was placed inside a wooden coffin (which later decayed) and entombed in a rectangular pit surrounded with burial offerings in pottery vessels. The man was buried wearing a necklace of 340 graduated steatite beads and three separate pendant beads made of natural stone and three gold beads. A single copper bead was found at his waist.
BurialBurial of woman and infant, Harappa. This burial was disturbed in antiquity, possibly by ancient Harappan grave robbers. Besides the fact that the body is flipped and the pottery disturbed, the left arm of the woman is broken and shell bangles that would normally be found on the left arm are missing. The infant was buried in a small pit beneath the legs of the mother.
Collapse of Harappan “Civilization”The de-urbanization period of the Harappan Civilization saw the collapse and disappearance of the urban phenomena in the South Asia. The theme for this period is localization. Architectural and ceramic forms changed along with the loss of writing, planned settlements, public sanitation, monumental architecture, seaborne and exotic trade, seals, and weights.(McIntosh, 2002)
Four Theories of CollapseArchaeologists have offered four explanations for the collapse of the Harappan “Civilization”. Three are based on ecological factors: intense flooding, decrease in precipitation, and the dessication of the Sarasvati River. The fourth hypothesis is that of the Aryan Invasion, proposed by Sir R. E. Mortimer Wheeler and Stuart Piggott.Image in text of “massacre” thought to support this hypothesis. Later interpreted as “peaceful” mass burial. Fourth largely abandoned in the 1940s in favor of a combination of factors from ecological disasters.
Civilization?Criticism of calling it a civilization because even though the culture is fairly homogenous, there is a lack of elite (such as high status burials).Thus, some researchers argue that it was actually more of a chiefdom, rather than a state-level society.
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