Sulci crevices or valleys o Gyri mounds or hills o Central sulcus separates

Sulci crevices or valleys o gyri mounds or hills o

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Sulci: crevices or valleys o Gyri: mounds or hills o Central sulcus: separates frontal and parietal lobes Pre-central gyrus: primary motor cortex (cell bodies that initiate & control movement) Post-central gyrus: somatosensory cortex (processes sensory information 9/8 Central Sulcus o Primary motor cortex o Primary somatosensory cortex o Particular parts of the body are connected with particular sections of the brain in these areas – homunculus Basal Nuclei/Ganglia: location of manifestation of Parkinson’s Disease o Inhibits muscle tone (free movement without restriction) o Suppresses useless patterns of movement (tremors)
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o Important for maintaining posture and balance (slow and sustained movement) o Dopamine- main chemical messenger used here (neurotransmitter) Thalamus: initial site for processing sensory information/input o Nearly all sensory input synapses here o Serves integrating and processing role o Provides a general awareness of sensation (knife in thigh example) Higher awareness at cerebral cortex level Hypothalamus o Connection between CNS and endocrine system o Homeostatic regulating center (temp, thirst, hunger, etc.) Cerebellum o Execution and coordination of voluntary motor activity Initiation is by the primary motor cortex in the cerebral cortex o Regulates rate, range, force, and direction of movement o Stores procedural memories (muscle memory=cerebellar memory) Brainstem: origin of most cranial nerves; site of cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive control centers o Midbrain o Pons o Medulla Limbic system: don’t need to know Spinal Cord Vertebral bodies: still have arachnoid, pia and dura mater o Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, (coccyx) Grey matter on inside, white matter on outside – organized into tracts o Dorsal Root: carries afferent, sensory info o Ventral root: carries efferent, motor info Both are outside the spinal cord and CNS
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o Dorsal root ganglion: cell bodies of afferent neurons Spinal nerve: combines dorsal and ventral roots outside the spinal cord o Exit at each level of the spinal cord on the L & R sides Tract: collection of myelinated axons (white matter) that carry similar information o Ascending tracts: PNS  Spine  Brain o Descending tracts: Brain  Spine  PNS Reflexes: automatic patterned response to a stimulus o Stimulus  patellar tendon  muscle spindle stretched (mechanoreceptor)  afferent neuron  interneuron  efferent somatic motor neuron  quadriceps o Efferent motor neuron  Hamstring (inhibitory) Afferent Division (sensory info) o Sensory information: info transmitted to CNS via afferent neurons Somatic (touch, temperature, pain, position) Special (sight, taste, smell) Visceral (internal organs and blood flow) o Most sensory info never reaches level of consciousness o Sensation: when sensory info reaches conscious recognition o Perception: interpretation of a sensation o Types of sensory receptors
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