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Sulci: crevices or valleysoGyri: mounds or hillsoCentral sulcus: separates frontal and parietal lobesPre-central gyrus: primary motor cortex (cell bodies that initiate & control movement)Post-central gyrus: somatosensory cortex (processes sensory information9/8Central SulcusoPrimary motor cortexoPrimary somatosensory cortexoParticular parts of the body are connected with particular sections of the brain in these areas – homunculusBasal Nuclei/Ganglia: location of manifestation of Parkinson’s DiseaseoInhibits muscle tone (free movement without restriction)oSuppresses useless patterns of movement (tremors)
oImportant for maintaining posture and balance (slow and sustained movement)oDopamine- main chemical messenger used here (neurotransmitter)Thalamus: initial site for processing sensory information/inputoNearly all sensory input synapses hereoServes integrating andprocessing roleoProvides a general awareness of sensation (knife in thigh example)Higher awareness at cerebral cortex levelHypothalamusoConnection between CNS and endocrine systemoHomeostatic regulating center (temp, thirst, hunger, etc.)CerebellumoExecution and coordination of voluntary motor activity Initiation is by the primary motor cortex in the cerebral cortexoRegulates rate, range, force, and direction of movementoStores procedural memories (muscle memory=cerebellar memory)Brainstem: origin of most cranial nerves; site of cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive control centersoMidbrainoPonsoMedullaLimbic system: don’t need to knowSpinal CordVertebral bodies: still have arachnoid, pia and dura materoCervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, (coccyx)Grey matter on inside, white matter on outside – organized into tractsoDorsal Root: carries afferent, sensory infooVentral root: carries efferent, motor infoBoth are outside the spinal cord and CNS
oDorsal root ganglion: cell bodies of afferent neuronsSpinal nerve: combines dorsal and ventral roots outside the spinal cordoExit at each level of the spinal cord on the L & R sidesTract: collection of myelinated axons (white matter) that carry similar informationoAscending tracts: PNS Spine BrainoDescending tracts: Brain Spine PNSReflexes: automatic patterned response to a stimulusoStimulus patellar tendon muscle spindle stretched (mechanoreceptor) afferent neuron interneuron efferent somatic motor neuron quadricepsoEfferent motor neuron Hamstring (inhibitory)Afferent Division (sensory info)oSensory information: info transmitted to CNS via afferent neuronsSomatic (touch, temperature, pain, position)Special (sight, taste, smell)Visceral (internal organs and blood flow)oMost sensory info never reaches level of consciousnessoSensation: when sensory info reaches conscious recognitionoPerception: interpretation of a sensationoTypes of sensory receptors