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Chapter 13

Degree to which decision making is distributed to

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degree to which decision making is distributed to lower-level employees - action can be taken more quickly to solve problems - more ppl provide input into decisions - employees less likely to feel alienated from those who make decisions that affect their work lives - easier to address customer concerns *trend: toward decentralizing decision making Individual Differences: ↓centralization → participative decision making↑ → job satisf’n↑ BUT, still have individual diff’s – highest job satisf’n for employees w/ low self-esteem (prefer shared decision making so they’re not responsible for decision outcomes) Formalization (How standardized are jobs?) = degree to which jobs within the org. are standardized - High: -employees have little discretion -explicit job descriptions, many org. rules, clearly defined work procedures -employees expected to handle same input in exactly same way → consistent/uniform output - Low: -job behaviours relatively nonprogrammed -employees have more freedom to exercise discretion in their work - standardization eliminates possibility of employees engaging in alternative behaviours, & removes need for employees to consider alternatives
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE mechanistic model = structure characterized by extensive departmentalization , high formalization, clear chain of command, narrow spans of control, a limited info network (mostly downward comm’n), centralization, lil participation by lower-level members in decision making e.g. gov’t organic model = structure that is flat, uses cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, has low formalization, possesses a comprehensive info network (lateral / upward comm’n & downward), involves high participation in decision-making e.g. high-tech firms (individuals collaborate on many tasks) Individual Responses to Organizational Structure Degree of Bureaucratic Orientation of individuals… HIGH: better suited to mechanistic structures LOW: organic structures prefer formal relationships w/ others on the job heavy reliance on higher authority - cultural bg influences preference for structure… e.g. high power distance (Russia, Spain, Thailand) → more accepting of mechanistic structure Mechanistic Model High specialization Rigid departmentalization Clear chain of command Narrow spans of control Centralization High formalization Organic Model Cross- functional teams Cross- hierarchical teams Free flow of info Wide spans of control De central ization Low formalization
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNS The Simple Structure (flat) = org. design characterized by a low degree of departmentalization wide spans of control authority centralized in a single person (which can be risky) little formalization - flat org. → 2, 3 vertical levels & loose body of employees - small businesses in which manager = owner (e.g. local corner grocery store) Strength: simplicity (fast, flexible, inexpensive to maintain, clear accountability)
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degree to which decision making is distributed to lower...

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