● Ratio is number; interval is time. ● Ratio schedules (blue and green) response rate is higher. Fixed interval and variable interval not quite as much responding. Becomes more consistent because they do not know when the reinforcement is coming compared to fixed schedule ratio. ● Ratio- number; Interval- time; Fixed- not random Types of Punishment ● Punishment ○ Any event that weakens ( decreases the frequency of) a behavior happening again. ● Positive Punishment ○ Administration (addition) of an aversive stimulus ○ Child is given extra chores
○ Rat is given electric shock ○ Giving or adding something in that is an aversive stimulus. ■ Ex: little boy here has extra chores for you to do because you did something bad. Positive punishment: administering an aversive stimulus. Something they don't want getting added in. ● Negative Punishment ○ Removing (subtracting) a desirable stimulus ○ Child is grounded (cannot go to mall) ○ Rat has food taken away ○ Removal or subtraction of the desired stimulus. Taking away something like going on and in the hopes to decrease or weakening the behavior of that child. ■ Ex: a child picks his nose and the teacher yells at him. Decreases the behavior. Positive part (aversive stimulus) of getting yelled at. Punishment ● Swift and sure punishers can powerfully restrain unwanted behavior, including criminal behavior. The threat of harsh sentences is generally ineffective ● Spanking? ○ Criminal behavior- punishment of behavior suppresses the behavior; it does not get rid of it. ■ Ex: kid swears and the parent spanks him. Punishment teaches fear or modeling behavior that his way of doing things will get you what you want. ○ Crime Punishment tells you what not to do NOT what you should be doing. Teaching you how to avoid behaviors not how to act. Operant Conditioning- Extending Skinner’s Understanding ● Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. For example, it’s easy to train a pigeon to peck to obtain food, but not to flap its wings to obtain food. Or, to teach cat tricks that involve leaping high and landing on their feet. ○ Anything naturally adaptive the organisms are easily able to learn. Cannot teach a pig to sing. Applications of Operant Conditioning ● At school: Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards ○ Grades as a reinforcement. Getting good grades vs. bad ones ● In sports : shaping can be used to train complex skills such as hitting a golf ball ○ Shape and change someone's shot/serve is and training complex skills by small changes and converting it to the end for an overall increase of production. ● At work : rewarding specific, achievable behaviors, rather than vaguely defined “merit,” increases workplace productivity ● At home : in children, reinforcing good behavior increases the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.
○ Reinforce good behaviors. Eldon does something good means getting a high five, tic tacks, etc.
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